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This article is about the location in the series. For the location in the film, see Northern Water Tribe. For other tribes, see Tribe (disambiguation).

The Northern Water Tribe is an independent state located within the realms of the North Pole,[9] ruled by a hereditary monarchic chiefdom.[6] As the oldest division of the three Water Tribes,[10] the Northern Water Tribe dominated both the North Pole as well as the South Pole for centuries.[11] Its capital city, Agna Qel'a, is notable for being made almost entirely out of ice. Even though much of its territory encompasses largely inhospitable tundra terrain, the Northern Water Tribe always thrived in its isolation,[1] and grew into a major political and economical power after the Hundred Year War.[5] Unlike its counterpart, the Southern Water Tribe, the North never succumbed to foreign invasions like the massive Siege of the North by the Fire Nation.[2][5]

The people of the Northern Water Tribe are traditionally conservative and very spiritual,[1][12] but still open to change and reform.[13] The Northern waterbending style is the most widespread form, practiced by waterbenders at both poles[14] and in the United Republic of Nations,[15] as raids on the Southern Water Tribe led to the southern style becoming nearly extinct during the Hundred Year War.[16]


Origin and division

Long before the Hundred Year War, the predecessors of the Water Tribe relocated to the North Pole from the tropical regions they originally inhabited.[17] There, they formed several independent tribes. Eventually, a group of waterbenders united to build Agna Qel'a in an attempt to bring all the tribes of the North Pole together. The waterbenders used their icy environment to create the various temples, villages, and canals that comprise the city.[10] After a time of civil unrest, this newfound unity declined following their inability to agree on certain social and cultural practices,[18] and a group of secessionists journeyed to the South Pole to engender a new tribe.[19][20]

Despite these initial difficulties, the relations between the Northern Water Tribe and the secessionist Southern Water Tribe improved over time. The South reaccepted the authority of the Northern chiefs as long as it was granted autonomy and a Council of Elders to govern itself.[11] To strengthen the tribal ties and political harmony, the Northern ruling family began to take Southerners as their spouses.[21] Additionally, the New Moon Celebration was established in order to reunite the two Water Tribes.[22] Over time, the Northern Water Tribe grew prosperous and powerful enough to defend its wealth from outsiders thanks to a strong navy. By the 4th century BG, the North completely eclipsed the South in terms of economics, population, and military, as the latter had become relatively poor and isolated.[23]

Economic success and diplomatic conflict

In 345 BG, Avatar Kuruk was born into the Northern Water Tribe.[nb 1] During Kuruk's life, tragedy struck when Koh emerged from the Spirit Oasis to abduct his fiancée, Ummi. It thus became widely known that there was likely a passage to the Spirit World at the bottom of the pond, and visitors to the Oasis were wary of its waters for decades to come. Because of Kuruk's perceived failings as Avatar, it was frowned upon to mention him in the Water Tribe after his death.[25]

In the early era of Kyoshi, Agna Qel'a and the Northern Water Tribe as a whole were economically successful, evident by their opulent palace, their organized military, and the general well-being of their population. Agna Qel'a was open to all visitors during this time. The North's period of prosperity was in stark contrast to the South, which economically struggled in the aftermath of the age of piracy following the Fall of the Fifth Nation. Many in the South questioned how the North could claim to govern them and fail to support their struggling peoples. With the tribal chieftains at a political stalemate, the lesser chieftains in the South organized themselves to parlay with the North and open up methods of communication, hoping that their sister tribe could offer them support.[25]

By the early life of Avatar Roku, the North continued to prosper, while the South had largely recovered from its struggles following the age of piracy.[26] Roku learned waterbending at the Northern Water Tribe during his Avatar journey, instructed by Taqukaq, a powerful master. Taqukaq refused to train Roku at first, until the Avatar convinced him of his devotion by living in the North for several years.[27][28]

A great tragedy of the time period arose when a great tsunami hit the northern Earth Kingdom state of Chenbao, which had disputed with the Northern Water Tribe over fishing rights for years, engaging in minor skirmishes, and militarizing the waters. Although it was simply a natural disaster, each nation blamed the other, with the Earth Kingdom blaming the Northern Water Tribe's waterbenders for sending the tsunami, and the North blaming earthbenders for setting off an underwater earthquake. Avatar Roku was forced to intevene before a full-scale war broke out, though their navies remained in the waters.[29] As tensions grew, the governor of Chenbao attempted to tax all Water Tribe goods or merchant ships traveling through the Northern Passage. The North's ships avoided the authorities through their sailing mastery, but their goods were subsequently considered contrabrand if sold in the Earth Kingdom. The waters between the North and the Earth Kingdom thus became functionally blocked.[29][28]

The Water Tribes began to reexamine their role in the world during the new age of industrialization and modernization. The North and the South often held different opinions on how they should progress, but communication between the two tribes was open and fruitful. While the South believed that the Tribes should seek new allies, Chief Skiri of the North believed other nations had taken enough from them. He believed that the North should meet the other nations on their own terms - aggression and battle - as it was the only way to get them to listen.[26]

Further tensions erupted when a Southern chieftain found Fire Nation ships on a sacred island that was the halfway point of the Water Tribes. Through diplomatic channels, Chief Skiri learned that the Fire Nation had laid claim to the island. The chief was ready to send a majority of his fleet to retake the island, but needed support from the Southern chieftains. The Southern chieftains could not come to a consensus on what to do, as many were unwilling to risk starting an all-out war with the Fire Nation.[28]

Another great issue of the day was the increasing number of dark spirits active at the polar regions. The dark spirits raged through the wilderness, attacking villages, hurting people, and damaging homes. Members of the tribes were worried, as although they kept the spirits appeased for now, it would only be a time before the issue became untenable. Spiritually-focused tribespeople believed the increase in spiritual activity was linked to nations expanding their reach and abusing natural resources for technological advancement, such as the Fire Nation laying claim to Water Tribe sacred land and hunting the dragons, as well as the Earth Kingdom displacing spirits in their hunt for natural resources.[28]

Hundred Year War

See also: Hundred Year War; Siege of the North

By early 100 AG, a large ice wall had been erected around the capital's entrance in order to protect the tribe from the Fire Nation.

Prior to the Hundred Year War, Agna Qel'a was an open port city that was accessible to any visitors.[19] However, the Fire Nation launched a simultaneous attack on the Water Tribes as well as the Air Nomads and Earth Kingdom in 0 AG, using the power of Sozin's Comet. The Northern Water Tribe survived the initial assault[30] and mobilized its fleet to fight the Fire Navy alongside contingents from its sister tribe. However, the two tribes' fleets were defeated in a series of major naval battles during the early Hundred Year War. The Northern Water Tribe responded by retreating and focusing on the defense,[31] erecting a thick wall of ice at the mouth of Agna Qel'a as a means to keep the Fire Nation out.[19] In 15 AG, the Fire Nation invaded the North Pole, but the tribe defeated the attack.[32]

In course of the remaining Hundred Year War, the tribe became increasingly isolated, cutting off most of its contact with the outside world and eventually losing touch with the Southern Water Tribe, leaving the latter to fend on its own.[19] The North preferred to primarily defend its own borders rather than provide aid to the other nations or territories being attacked by the Fire Nation, and some rebels escaped the North in order to directly aid the Earth Kingdom.[33] Overall, the North suffered greatly during the war, though not to the extent of its sister tribe.[31] Direct Fire Nation attacks on the North Pole ceased long before Chief Arnook's rule.[32]

The Fire Nation besieged the city during the final stages of the Hundred Year War.

The Fire Nation military returned to the North Pole during the Siege of the North of late 99 AG. Fire Navy Admiral Zhao led a massive assault on Agna Qel'a in an attempt to destroy the Water Tribes and kill the Moon Spirit, Tui, in an attempt to eradicate waterbending. The tribe was saved when Avatar Aang, merged with the Ocean Spirit La, destroyed the Fire Navy fleet and when Princess Yue gave up her life to revive Tui, thus becoming Tui's successor.[2]

Reunification of the Water Tribes

See also: Southern Reconstruction Project

In the aftermath of the Fire Nation's siege of the North Pole, select benders and healers from the Northern Tribe left for the South Pole in an effort to rebuild their ravaged sister tribe.[2] These efforts were increased after the Hundred Year War's conclusion, culminating in the Southern Reconstruction Project led by the siblings Malina and Maliq.[34] When the Northerners discovered the world's largest oil depository on Southern soil, however, the Northern leadership deemed its sister tribe unfit to handle such an important resource. Secret plans were drafted according to which the Southern Water Tribe would become a colony of the North. When this plot was discovered, a Southern nationalist uprising broke out that was eventually defeated at the hands of Team Avatar and their allies.[35][36] Regardless, anti-northern sentiment persisted among the Southern Water Tribe.[11][36]

Meanwhile, the Northern Water Tribe recovered from the Great War's damage[31] and underwent social and economic reforms. Women were no longer restricted by law,[13] and the tribe grew increasingly powerful. Agna Qel'a began to significantly expand to become a large metropolis.[5] At some point, the North officially restored its rule over the Southern Water Tribe, even though the South maintained its autonomy under jurisdiction of the Northern chief.[11]


See also: Barbarian Invasion; Chief Unalaq

After the foundation of the United Republic, the Northern Water Tribe was given a seat on the United Republic Council.[37] Many Northerners migrated into the republic in course of the following years, becoming a significant minority in Republic City.[38]

After undergoing a surgery to alter his physical appearance, Republic City's most notorious crime boss, Yakone, made his way to the Northern Water Tribe to start life anew. There, he married a woman and had two children, Noatak and Tarrlok. After Yakone forced his children to bloodbend each other, Noatak ran away. Yakone and Tarrlok assumed that Noatak had perished in the ice. However, Noatak survived and made his way to Republic City, where he assumed the alias of "Amon", and started the Anti-bending Revolution in an attempt to rid the world of bending.[39]

The large metropolis came under attack by barbarians in 151 AG.

By 151 AG, the tribe came under attack by a horde of barbarians. Tonraq, general of the troops at the time, defended Agna Qel'a and expelled the invaders. However, by destroying a sacred spirit forest in his quest to apprehend the Barbarians, he brought the wrath of the spirits in the city, and the entities laid waste on the capital city. The metropolis was saved by his brother, Unalaq, though Tonraq was banished by their father, chief at that time. As a result, Unalaq took over his older brother's birthright, and became chief after their father.[5] In 158 AG, Chief Unalaq and Fire Lord Zuko collaborated to build a secret maximum security prison in the western tundra of the North Pole to hold the criminal P'Li.[8]

Over time, the Southern Water Tribe became prosperous, with its economy growing remarkably. As its suzerain, the Northern Water Tribe urged the South to share its wealth, referring to the North's support after the war. The Southern tribesmen yielded, but these taxes remained unpopular, and resentment began to grow.[11] The two tribes also developed apart in other regards,[31] such as spirituality.[5] By the time Unalaq ascended to the throne, many Southerners questioned the Northern authority.[11]

In 170 AG, Tarrlok served as the Northern Water Tribe's representative in the United Republic Council,[40] and was crucially involved in the Anti-bending Revolution. Later, he revealed Amon's history in the Northern Water Tribe to Avatar Korra and Mako.[39] Following Tarrlok's death, and the dissolution of the United Republic Council, the North lost its direct influence in the republic.[14]

Water Tribe Civil War

See also: Water Tribe Civil War

Northern Water Tribe soldiers defended the Southern spirit portal against Team Avatar during the Unalaq Crisis.

In 171 AG, under Unalaq's leadership, the Northern Water Tribe's Navy began an invasion of their sister tribe, ostensibly to protect the spirit portal at the heart of the South Pole and to prevent the South from falling into spiritual decay.[5] The occupation was not welcomed by the Southerners, who had already resented Northern rule for many years[11] and felt that Unalaq's actions threatened their sovereignty.[41] Eventually, these tensions boiled over when Team Avatar broke a group of rebels out of prison after learning that Unalaq had not only fixed their trial, but also organized the barbarian invasion of the North that led to Tonraq's banishment. This event officially ignited the Water Tribe Civil War.[4] Unalaq used the chaos of the conflict to prepare for the Harmonic Convergence, during which he freed Vaatu and merged with the spirit. The Northern troops were eventually defeated and Unalaq killed, ending the civil war with the South's victory. Soon after, Avatar Korra declared the Southern Water Tribe independent from the North,[9] and Desna and Eska, Unalaq's children, returned to their tribe to rule in their father's stead.

Reign of Desna and Eska

Two weeks after Harmonic Convergence, P'Li escaped prison with the help of the Red Lotus.[8] Some nonbenders from the Northern Water Tribe also began to obtain airbending abilities in the wake of Harmonic Convergence, and joined the new Air Nation.[42]

Although both Water Tribes had been at war very recently, relations between the North and the South soon became relatively calm. Both tribes maintained lines of communication with one another, and always remained careful not to slip into old patterns from when they were united. Desna and Eska did not intend to make the same mistakes as their father, and focused on making healthy connections with the outside world. Tradition stated that the North must care for the spirits, but more was needed in the modern age. While their leaders loathed to admit it, and and thus showed it in their actions instead, the North could no longer stand on its own in an era of increased international cooperation.[43]

As very young chiefs, it was hard for some of Desna and Eska's subjects to trust in them. Some citizens of the Northern Water Tribe even began to look at the twins as two children who betrayed their father, rather than two leaders who made the correct decision in a difficult situation. The twins were not very personable leaders, and thus their acerbic wit could make for tense political situations.[44]

The Northern Water Tribe continued to enter an age of increasing tolerance. While traditional gender norms had grown less strict after the Hundred Year War, Desna and Eska issued a decree that gender played no part on who could or could not marry each other, thus legalizing same-sex marriage in the North. When they received some pushback against the decree, they made personal appearances at same-sex weddings to make their support clear. Some believed that the eccentric twins simply did this to amuse themselves, but those close to Desna and Eska knew that they truly supported same-sex relationships. Avatar Korra coming out about her relationship with Asami also inspired many queer Water Tribe members to do the same, including in the North. The younger generation also started to question the relevance of their parents arranging their marriages in the modern world, where many believed that people should be able to love who they wanted to confidently and proudly. Some traditionalists did not take well to this, and even those quietly supportive sometimes struggled to vocalize their support in fear of ostracization.[44]


Government system: Unitary hereditary monarchic chiefdom

Head of State and Government: Tribal chief

The Northern Tribe is a hereditary monarchy with its monarch called chief by tradition, though the modern government has abandoned many of the tribal aspects that dominated the tribe for centuries. The chief can be either male or female, and is commander-in-chief of the tribe's military and has almost autocratic authority over political affairs. However, he or she officially has no influence on judicial courts, though Chief Unalaq was able to control the courts by bribery.[4] The chief can order martial law and banish anyone as punishment for endangering the tribe.[5] In regard of succession, absolute primogeniture is practiced in the Northern Water Tribe, unless the firstborn heir is disinherited.[5] When the firstborn children of the chief are twins, both can jointly inherit the chiefdom.[8]

By 100 AG, a council that convened in the palace's throne room had great influence on the North's politics.

By the latter stages of the Hundred Year War, the tribal aspects were still strong: Even though the chief was powerful, politics were often personal and determined by the authority of individuals. Normally, the chief made decisions based on advice given by a small council of the respected individuals in the tribe. It was this council that was responsible for making laws and organizing the tribe. Political rise was driven more by the right connections and descent than by performance. Because of these politics, marrying the chief's daughter, the Tribal Princess, was considered to be a significant step in a person's political career. If the chief only had a daughter as heir, she had no right to inherit the chiefdom. The Northern Water Tribe was infamous for upholding extreme sexist views before the end of the Hundred Year War; the tribe had a law that did not allow women to learn martial waterbending. Female nonbenders were also not allowed to fight, and any woman who became a warrior was considered a "renegade", not accepted by the military or the majority of society.[45] Labor division was generally dependent on gender: men typically worked as hunters, fishermen, teachers, or warriors, and women usually served as homemakers, healers, or teachers.[19][32] These patriarchal and sexist traditions were abandoned after the Great War,[13] as Malina, an engineer and architect, led the North's Southern Reconstruction Project around 102 AG and showed prowess in combative waterbending.[34][35] By 171 AG, a Tribal Princess could not only become chief but also take an active role in times of war.[8][46]

Status of the Southern Water Tribe

Traditionally, the Northern chief was the official head of state of both Water Tribes, even though the Southern Water Tribe had its own autonomous government.[11] To ensure that both tribes felt adequately represented by the central government, however, the Northern ruling family began to take Southerners as their spouses, so that the chiefs were often of mixed ancestry.[21] An island at the halfway point between the Water Tribes became sacred to both tribes, and severe disputes between the North and the South were traditionally brought to the island before being settled. Chiefs made a voyage to the island at least once in their careers to pay respect to the land, which had extreme spiritual and cultural significance to both tribes.[28]

When the Hundred Year War broke out, the North lost contact to its sister tribe, and the South became effectively independent. In the war's aftermath, the Northern chiefs resumed their rule over the South, but as the chiefs still reigned from their capital at the North Pole, their political power was great in the North, but limited to ceremonial and representative tasks in the South.[11][21][41] In times of crisis, however, the chief could dissolve the ruling southern Council of Elders, assuming almost dictatorial power over the South in the process.[14] The Southern Water Tribe gained full independence after the civil war in 171 AG.[9]


Agna Qel'a

Main article: Agna Qel'a

Agna Qel'a by the late Hundred Year War

Located at the North Pole, Agna Qel'a is huge and multi-tiered, built into the icy landscape. Looming over the city are giant ice cliffs from which it was originally built. The city rests on the shores of the Northern Sea, and behind it is an enormous frozen tundra.[1]

Spirit Oasis

Main article: Spirit Oasis

The Spirit Oasis.

The Spirit Oasis is a verdant and lush garden located in a cave in Agna Qel'a at the North Pole. Although the land outside is perpetually frozen, the Spirit Oasis itself is warm. This is where the mortal incarnations of the Moon and Ocean Spirits live. The water of the oasis is said to contain unique healing properties. It is a place where the Spirit World overlaps with the mortal world.[47] It is known to be one of the most peaceful places in the bending world.[32]

Underground ice cavern

These interconnecting ice caverns are located underneath the city and were naturally created by the ocean water eroding away the ice. Seals and other animals live in these ice caverns, and the only way to get to them is to swim through the freezing water.[19] Zuko traveled through these caverns when trying to capture Aang during the Siege of the North.[32]

North Pole

Main article: North Pole

The frozen tundra of the North Pole.

This massive stretch of arctic tundra covers most of the North Pole. The inland tundra is mostly mountainous and inhabited by a diverse fauna. The valleys of the arctic mountain ranges also host small settlements, such as Yakone's village.[39]

However, the coastal arctic plains are extremely treacherous. Only highly skilled arctic hunters travel on the open plains, hunting the animals that live there, and they never stay longer than a few days at a time. Heavy winter blizzards constantly pelt the tundra, and unstable ice sheets often give way under the slightest pressure. Even experienced waterbenders and warriors think twice about venturing into this dangerous environment.[19]

P'Li's prison

P'Li's prison was built in the North Pole to negate her firebending abilities.

P'Li's prison is a secret underground containment facility commissioned by Lord Zuko and Chief Unalaq. it is located deep in the western tundras of the North Pole, and served as a prison for a powerful fire bender named P'Li, who can create explosions with her mind, the intense cold prevents the use of firebending. Two watchtowers situated directly outside the facility monitor approaching civilians and large metal doors bearing the White Lotus insignia prevent immediate access to the interior. Inside the building is a mechanical elevator which transports visitors deep underground to a platform overlooking the cell, which is reached via a metal ramp that automatically extends from underneath the platform. Although she was restrained by chains, the lattice work on her door allowed P'Li to see outside of her cell.[8]

Spirit Wilds

Main article: Spirit Wilds

The spirit forest before it was flooded by Tonraq and his men.

Deep in the tundra of the Northern Water Tribe lies a sacred forest, which many spirits called their home. During the barbarian invasion of the Northern Water Tribe, Tonraq and his men chased the invaders into the forest. The barbarians thought they would be safe there, believing the Northern Water Tribesmen would not dare to attack on holy grounds. Tonraq, however, had no such concerns and attacked. Though he was successful in capturing the barbarians, his actions ultimately caused unwanted destruction of the forest.

The forest is also the site of one of two ancient portals to the Spirit World. The portals were closed by Avatar Wan following his battle with Vaatu, but later reopened by Avatar Korra prior to Harmonic Convergence in 171 AG.

Yakone's village

This village served as Yakone's new home after he left Republic City and assumed a new identity. Here, he met his wife and had two children, Noatak and Tarrlok. He lived out the remainder of his life in this village, teaching his children bloodbending until Noatak ran away and assumed his new identity as Amon.[39]


Princess Yue's betrothal necklace, given to her by Hahn.

Women become marriageable at the age of sixteen. Some marriages are arranged by parents, with the bride in particular having no say in the matter. Engaged women wear "betrothal necklaces", navy blue chokers bearing blue stone pendants carved by their husband-to-be.[19] After the Water Tribe Civil War, many members of the younger generation began to question the relevance of their parents arranging their marriages in the modern age, where everyone should be able to love who they want loudly and proudly.[44]

Until after the Hundred Year War, it was forbidden by custom for female waterbenders to learn waterbending for fighting purposes. Instead, they were trained as healers, able to use bending to heal wounds and at least some illnesses and mental disturbances.[1] Female nonbenders were also not allowed to train as warriors.[45] Some women moved to the more tolerant Southern Water Tribe or to other nations to escape these restrictions, while others became outcasts in society for deviating from the rules.[1][45] However, some Northern women were proud to be healers rather than fighters, such as Atuat, who believed that healing was a much more complex art than the combative forms of waterbending.[48] These sexist attitudes began to be challenged following the end of the Hundred Year War, with female waterbenders being accepted in society if they chose to learn how to fight.[49]

Traditionally, Water Tribe culture encouraged people in same-sex relationships to keep that as part of their private lives, although it was rare for families to disown their children for coming out.[49][50] Transgender members of the Northern Water Tribe were also sometimes rejected by their families if they expressed the need to live their true identities.[26] These attitudes began to be challenged in the decades after the Hundred Year War, with a new period of tolerance beginning after the Water Tribe Civil War. Chiefs Eska and Desna issued a decree that legalized same-sex marriage, and began attending many same-sex weddings. Heterosexual and non-heterosexual members of the younger generation also began to question the relevance of their parents arranging their marriages, as many believed that people should be able to love who they wanted to confidently and proudly in the modern world. However, some traditionalists were uncomfortable with more open expression of identity, and even those who were quietly supportive struggled to vocalize this in fear of ostracization.[44]


Like the Fire Nation, Northern schools include subjects such as history, strategy, reading, writing, music, waterbending, and others. This is apprent due to the fact that the population has shown to know quite a lot about these subjects. The city also boasts numerous medical schools and science institutions that teach young female waterbenders to hone their healing abilities and medical skills. Northern schools and institutions teach other subjects, like geography; this is apparent from the fact that they can read maps.

Natural resources and foods

Northern Water Tribe warriors.

Inhabiting frozen poles near the seas, the Water Tribes inherently are dependent on the oceans for a majority of their natural resources as well as the bounty of the frozen tundra. Sea prunes are a favorite, while giant sea crabs are considered a delicious delicacy to those in the Northern Sea. Squid and seaweed can be used to make a wide variety of dishes, including soup, seasoning, and even bread and cookies.

Skins from seals are used to create tents, while pelts from polar bears and other furry animals are used as clothing and to cover barren surfaces. Naturally, hunters and fishermen of the Water Tribes are some of the best in the world in their field.

One of the most prevalent natural resources of the Northern Water Tribe is ice. Ice is used as the main building material used to make buildings, walls, dikes, locks, and other structures, as well as a medium of bending.

Notable figures



  • Like its sister tribe in the south, the Northern Water Tribe has several villages outside the main city.[39]
  • By 151 AG, Agna Qel'a had expanded to areas atop the cliffs that surround the city.
  • The canal system in Agna Qel'a was inspired by the canals found specifically in Italy.[51] The design of the bridges connecting the two sides of each canal resemble that of Venice, and the architecture of most of the city is strikingly European.
  • Special goggles are required to move around the brightest parts of Agna Qel'a without going snowblind.[52]
  • Even though the ice wall in the harbor of Agna Qel'a was constructed exclusively for the purpose of keeping the Fire Nation Army from entering the city, the wall was not taken down after the end of the Hundred Year War.
  • Aang and Korra have both been reminded about their spiritual connection as the Avatar by individuals tied to the leadership in the Northern Water Tribe; Princess Yue reflected on the spiritual connection with Aang and Katara during the invasion of the North, and Korra was later told of and trained on her spiritual connection by Chief Unalaq.


  1. Kuruk was said to be born almost 500 years before Avatar Korra, who was born in 153 AG, making his date of birth around 345 BG.[24]


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  30. The Lost Scrolls: Water, Section "Introduction", in The Lost Scrolls Collection.
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  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 Ehasz, Aaron (writer) & MacMullan, Lauren (director). (December 2, 2005). "The Siege of the North, Part 1". Avatar: The Last Airbender. Season 1. Episode 19. Nickelodeon.
  33. Avatar Legends: The Roleplaying Game. Wan Shi Tong's Adventure Guide, Version 1.0, 2022, p. 136.
  34. 34.0 34.1 DiMartino, Michael Dante; Konietzko, Bryan; Yang, Gene Luen (writer), Sasaki of Gurihiru (penciling, inking), Kawano of Gurihiru (colorist), Heisler, Michael; Comicraft (letterer). North and South Part One (September 27, 2016), Dark Horse Comics.
  35. 35.0 35.1 DiMartino, Michael Dante; Konietzko, Bryan; Yang, Gene Luen (writer), Sasaki of Gurihiru (penciling, inking), Kawano of Gurihiru (colorist), Heisler, Michael; Comicraft (letterer). North and South Part Two (January 25, 2017), Dark Horse Comics.
  36. 36.0 36.1 DiMartino, Michael Dante; Konietzko, Bryan; Yang, Gene Luen (writer), Sasaki of Gurihiru (penciling, inking), Kawano of Gurihiru (colorist), Heisler, Michael; Comicraft (letterer). North and South Part Three (April 26, 2017), Dark Horse Comics.
  37. From older Welcome to Republic City online game, originally on Nick.com. Game now broken, archived at The Lost Lore of Avatar Korra - United Republic Council.
  38. Hedrick, Tim (writer) & Heck, Colin (director). (October 4, 2013). "Peacekeepers". The Legend of Korra. Book Two: Spirits. Episode 5. Nickelodeon.
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  40. From older Welcome to Republic City online game, originally on Nick.com. Game now broken, archived at The Lost Lore of Avatar Korra - Tarrlok.
  41. 41.0 41.1 DiMartino, Michael Dante (writer) & Heck, Colin (director). (September 20, 2013). "Civil Wars, Part 1". The Legend of Korra. Book Two: Spirits. Episode 3. Nickelodeon.
  42. Avatar Legends: The Roleplaying Game. Core Book, Version 1.0, 2022, p. 158.
  43. Avatar Legends: The Roleplaying Game. Core Book, Version 1.0, 2022, p. 84.
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 Avatar Legends: The Roleplaying Game. Core Book, Version 1.0, 2022, p. 85.
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 Avatar Legends: The Roleplaying Game. Core Book, Version 1.0, 2022, p. 265.
  46. Hamilton, Joshua (writer) & Heck, Colin (director). "Night of a Thousand Stars". The Legend of Korra. Book Two: Spirits. Episode 11. Nickelodeon.
  47. DVD commentary for "The Siege of the North" featured on The Complete Book 1 Collection and the collector's edition.
  48. Yee, F. C. (author), DiMartino, Michael Dante (author). (July 21, 2020). Chapter Seven, "The Headmistress". The Shadow of Kyoshi. Amulet Books.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Avatar Legends: The Roleplaying Game. Core Book, Version 1.0, 2022, p. 30.
  50. DiMartino, Michael Dante (writer), Koh, Irene (artist), Piekos, Nate; Blambot (letterer), Campbell, Heather; Bak, Jane (cover), Ng, Killian (colorist). Turf Wars Part One (July 26, 2016), Dark Horse Comics.
  51. DiMartino, Michael Dante; Konietzko, Bryan & Ehasz, Aaron (September 19, 2006). "The Waterbending Master" commentary. Book 1: Water, Volume 5 DVD.
  52. Yee, F. C. (author), DiMartino, Michael Dante (author). (July 21, 2020). Chapter Five, "Cultural Diplomacy". The Shadow of Kyoshi. Amulet Books.

See also