- This article is a geographical overview of the Avatar World. For the map, see Map of the World of Avatar.
The world is divided into multiple landmasses, islands, and seas with a unique physical geography, landmarks, climates, and demography. For most of its history, the world was divided into a multitude of states and cultures which coalesced into four independent nations at some point after 3,829 BG: the Air Nomads, the Water Tribe, the Earth Kingdom, and the Fire Nation.
The four nations were influenced by their corresponding element and accordingly shaped their environment. The Air Nomads had four temples located in the north, south, east, and west of the Earth. There are two main Water Tribes, situated north and south of the Earth Kingdom, the most expansive and populated state in the world. The Fire Nation is located in the west of the world and is an archipelago of volcanic islands. Each nation has a predominant season, and geography has a great influence on the customs and culture of each country. Nevertheless, smaller cultures and quasi-independent polities, as well as groups of mixed ethnicity, continued to active during this period.
As part of the Harmony Restoration Movement from 100 AG, which sought to restore balance to the world after one hundred years of war, a fifth territory known as the United Republic of Nations was founded as a place where inhabitants of all nations could mingle freely. Furthermore, the Earth Kingdom began to disband itself into smaller states after 174 AG.
The Air Nomads were wanderers by definition but had four air temples at various locations across the world, where novices were raised and trained. Certain temples were also the sites of specific events and festivals on the Air Nomad calendar, and airbenders from across the world would congregate there at designated times to celebrate.
Eastern Air Temple
- Main article: Eastern Air Temple
The Eastern Air Temple was one of the two temples exclusively housing female airbenders. Like the other temples, its population was completely exterminated during the Air Nomad Genocide. Guru Pathik resided here for a considerable amount of time, as he waited years for Aang to come so he could teach the Avatar how to properly control the Avatar State. Following the Hundred Year War, the Eastern Air Temple became home to Air Acolytes, and later housed some of the new airbenders after Harmonic Convergence.
Northern Air Temple
- Main article: Northern Air Temple
The Northern Air Temple is a temple that hosted only male monks. It is located in the upper reaches of the northern Earth Kingdom, built upon a snow-capped mountain. This temple was also a victim of the Air Nomad Genocide, along with all the other air temples. By 100 AG, it had become renowned for its arbitrary colonization by Earth Kingdom refugees, who were led by the mechanist. Up to that point, the area had undergone rapid industrialization. The Northern Air Temple was restored after the war and was inhabited by Air Acolytes, and briefly trained new airbenders after Harmonic Convergence. However, it was destroyed by Ghazan's lavabending attack when the Red Lotus held the new airbenders hostage in their quest to end the Avatar Cycle.
Southern Air Temple
- Main article: Southern Air Temple
The Southern Air Temple was one of the four sanctuaries owned by the Air Nomads. It is the one located closest to the Southern Water Tribe and exclusively housed male airbenders. This region is notable for being the childhood home of Avatar Aang, and it was also the place where Avatar Roku learned airbending. Like the other temples, it was restored by Air Acolytes after the war, and is also home to some of the Air Nation's new airbenders.
Western Air Temple
- Main article: Western Air Temple
The Western Air Temple was a counterpart of the Eastern Air Temple, maintaining only female airbenders. It is situated in an island mountain range due north of the Fire Nation. Unlike the other air temples, this one consists of multiple small structures and portions versus merely a single large one. It too was a victim of the Air Nomad Genocide, which decimated all of its population. The temple is also notable in that, contrary to the other three temples, it is situated underneath the edge of a cliff, as opposed to a mountaintop. The spires seem as though they were constructed upside-down, and because of that, the temple is generally difficult to locate for passers-by. Like the other temples, it was restored by Air Acolytes after the war, and is also home to some of the Air Nation's new airbenders.
- Main article: Foggy Swamp
Though an outlying expanse of the tribe, this vast and mysterious wetland occupies a considerable portion of the southwestern Earth Kingdom. It provides an ideal residence for the Foggy Swamp Tribe, who are descended from immigrants of the Southern Water Tribe. The Swamp has an extensive array of fauna and flora, the latter of which are actually just a series of roots connected to one central tree, the towering banyan grove.
Northern Water Tribe
- Main article: Northern Water Tribe
The Northern Water Tribe is the largest division of its nation and is located on an island situated near the North Pole. The capital city, Agna Qel'a, prospers in its isolation. No attack from the Fire Nation on the city during the Hundred Year War ever ended in a loss for the tribe, including the tumultuous Siege of the North. After the fall of Ba Sing Se, the Northern Water Tribe boasted the only major city in the world to not be under Fire Nation jurisdiction.
Southern Water Tribe
- Main article: Southern Water Tribe
The Southern Water Tribe is a minor division of the Water Tribe. Its people are scattered in tiny villages and settlements located on an island by the South Pole. Unlike its thriving sister tribe, the people of the Southern Water Tribe were teetering on the edge of extinction during the Hundred Year War due to Fire Nation raids. However, following the Siege of the North, several volunteers traveled from the Northern Water Tribe to help rebuild their sister tribe. Through their efforts, the South underwent a major expansion, and by 171 AG, it had a large harbor city as its capital, along with numerous other smaller cities and villages scattered around the South Pole.
The Earth Kingdom is by far the largest of the original Four Nations, and its geography varies widely from region to region. While there is often not a "hard-and-fast" division between these regions, certain areas are marked by geographic features that may not be common elsewhere.
Full Moon Bay
- Main article: Full Moon Bay
Full Moon Bay is a secluded cove in East Lake, located just south of Ba Sing Se. It is the location of a hidden ferry station that refugees from all over the southern portion of the Earth Kingdom come to on their way to Ba Sing Se.
- Main article: Great Divide
The Great Divide is the largest canyon in the world. It is located in the rocky regions of the central Earth Kingdom.
Si Wong Desert
- Main article: Si Wong Desert
Ba Sing Se
- Main article: Ba Sing Se
Ba Sing Se is the monolithic capital of the Earth Kingdom, encompassing nearly the entire northeast corner of the country. It was the last great Earth Kingdom stronghold after the fall of Omashu. Ba Sing Se means "impenetrable city", an honorary reference to its two insurmountable walls, the gates of which have no hinges and can therefore not be opened in any way aside from the use of earthbending.
- Main article: Serpent's Pass
The Serpent's Pass is a narrow strip of land between the East and West Lakes that links the southern and northern halves of the Earth Kingdom. It is one of the very few direct paths to the capital, Ba Sing Se. The pathway is named after the serpent which guards the point at which the East and West Lakes meet. Here, the Serpent's Pass dips below the lakes for a limited distance. These adversities make the Serpent's Pass a typically avoided entryway into Ba Sing Se, and most refugees prefer to go by ferry instead.
- Main article: Merchant town
The merchant town is a minor trading settlement located high in the mountains of the northwestern Earth Kingdom. Historically, this region was the site of numerous airbender murders, as survivors of the genocide were tricked by firebenders into coming to this location when they heard rumors of its mysterious possession of Air Nomad relics. Such airbenders were consequently killed in a decisive ambush.
- Main article: Chin Village
Chin Village is a small town located on the cliffs of the Earth Kingdom's southwestern coast. It is named for Chin the Great, a warlord and conqueror who nearly conquered the Earth Kingdom. It plays host to the unique "Avatar Day" festival, a celebration that used to be a celebration in hate of the Avatar but is now held in honor of the Avatar.
- Main article: Gaoling
Gaoling is a large town located within a mountain range in the southern Earth Kingdom. It is home to both the wealthy Beifong family and the Earth Rumble tournaments. An old, well-established city, Gaoling has a spectrum of people residing in it, ranging from the very rich to the very poor. Because it was not in a particularly strategic location, the town was left untouched by the Hundred Year War. This is evidenced by the attitude of many of its residents.
- Main article: Kyoshi Island
Kyoshi Island is a small island off the southern coast of the Earth Kingdom, dotted with many small villages. It is famous as the birthplace of Avatar Kyoshi, and as the home of the elite Kyoshi Warriors. The island was created when Chin the Conqueror threatened to invade and conquer the former peninsula. Avatar Kyoshi separated Yokoya Peninsula from the Earth Kingdom mainland to keep her people safe from future threats.
- Main article: Omashu
Omashu is the second largest city in the Earth Kingdom and the capital of one of its provinces. Only Ba Sing Se, the titanic capital of the Earth Kingdom, is larger. It was one of the last great strongholds of the Earth Kingdom before its fall in the months before the end of the Hundred Year War, and a supplier of men and weaponry. Previously ruled by King Bumi, Omashu was taken over by the Fire Nation and renamed New Ozai. During the Day of Black Sun, King Bumi single-handedly liberated Omashu, and all the powerless firebenders abandoned the city.
- Main article: Plains village
The plains village is located in the arid grasslands of the southern Earth Kingdom, to the west of the Si Wong Desert. It was not the most ideal place to live in and was home to several suspicious characters, including Gow, who, along with his gang of thugs, passed off as Earth Kingdom soldiers in order to force the citizens to yield to their will. They often forcefully enlisted unwilling citizens into the Earth Kingdom Army and stole from those they considered weak, and as such, the town was often forced to live in fear of this band. The citizens of the village seemed to harbor a severe hatred for the Fire Nation, and several of its citizens left to fight in the Hundred Year War.
- Main article: Zaofu
Zaofu is an autonomous city-state, located in the southwestern part of the Earth Kingdom, and the home of the Metal Clan. Founded by Suyin Beifong, the Clan's matriarch, Zaofu is constructed entirely out of metal and is regarded by some as the safest city in the world. It was annexed by the Earth Empire temporarily in 174 AG, but power over the city was returned to Suyin following Kuvira's surrender.
Cave of Two Lovers
- Main article: Cave of Two Lovers
Located near the city of Omashu in the Earth Kingdom, the Cave of Two Lovers is a secret tunnel that passes through a section of the Kolau Mountain Range. The tunnel is actually a giant underground labyrinth full of dangerous animals including wolfbats and badgermoles.
- Main article: Farming village
- Main article: Gaipan
Gaipan is a small village located in the central Earth Kingdom. After being overtaken by the Fire Nation, it was evacuated shortly before being destroyed by a catastrophic flood.
- Main article: Mining village
The mining village is a medium-sized village located in the Earth Kingdom. It is located on the northwestern coast of the Earth Kingdom, and its inhabitants make a living by mining coal in several nearby mines.
- Main article: River village
The river village is located in the western Earth Kingdom, situated between the forks of a large river. It serves as a regional trading hub and ideal location for merchants to sell their wares.
- Main article: Fire Islands
- Main article: Boiling Rock
The Boiling Rock is a massive Fire Nation prison. Its name is derived from the fact that the prison is on an island in the middle of a boiling lake on a volcanic island. The Boiling Rock is where the most dangerous prisoners in the Fire Nation are held, domestic and foreign alike.
- Main article: Ember Island
Ember Island is a small resort located in the outer islands of the Fire Nation. It is home to many luxurious resorts and vacation homes for the wealthy and powerful. The beaches are among the most popular in the country and host many popular kuai ball games.
Fire Fountain City
- Main article: Fire Fountain City
Fire Fountain City is a large, industrial city located in the Fire Nation. It is named for the large, fire-breathing statue of Fire Lord Ozai in its center. It is located on one of the many islands in the eastern half of the Fire Nation.
Fire Nation Capital
- Main article: Fire Nation Capital
The Fire Nation Capital is the seat of the government for the Fire Nation. It is home to the Fire Lord, the royal family, and nobles of the Fire Nation. The capital is located on the Capital Island, a larger island in the western region of the Fire Nation.
- Main article: Hira'a
- Main article: Jang Hui
Jang Hui is a small, poor village located in the outer islands of the Fire Nation. Located on the Jang Hui River, this unique Fire Nation village is made up of floating houseboats connected together.
- Main article: Shu Jing
Shu Jing is a town located in the Fire Nation. Situated on a cliff above a river and waterfalls and surrounded by beautiful mountains, this is one of the many small, peaceful villages that are tucked away throughout the Fire Nation islands.
Sun Warriors' ancient city
- Main article: Sun Warriors' ancient city
Yon Rha's village
- Main article: Yon Rha's village
Yon Rha's village is situated in a hilly region of the southern Fire Nation, near the coastline. The terrain is rocky at times but in most areas the land is hilly and grassy.
United Republic of Nations
- Main article: Harbor town
The harbor town is a small coastal settlement located in the southern United Republic of Nations. Despite its strategic location, the village managed to stay free from Fire Nation occupation during the Hundred Year War.
- Main article: Makapu Village
Makapu Village is a small farming town located in the northeastern United Republic of Nations on the slopes of Mt. Makapu, an active volcano. Volcanic eruptions have caused the soil around the volcano to become rich in minerals, making it perfect for agriculture. It was notable for being the residence of the fortuneteller Aunt Wu. The village is also home to the rare panda lily flower, which grows in and around the crater of the volcano, and which is commonly used as a symbol of everlasting love and unity.
- Main article: Republic City
Republic City is a large metropolis located in the lower areas of a mountainous region, with large bodies of water in the immediate vicinity. It was founded as the capital of the United Republic of Nations, a fifth nation created by Fire Lord Zuko and Avatar Aang after the end of the Hundred Year War.
Seedy merchants pier
- Main article: Seedy merchants pier
The seedy merchants pier is a small harbor and town in the southern United Republic of Nations. It is a tiny trading port with a seedy element. Here one can buy almost anything, from jewelry to pottery to musical instruments and trivial items. The seedy merchant's pier welcomes all nations so long as they have an inclination for a bargain.
- Main article: Senlin Village
Senlin Village is a small farming village located in the center of a dense forest in the southern United Republic of Nations. It was attacked by the spirit Hei Bai near the winter solstice of 99 AG.
- Main article: Taku
Taku is an abandoned city located along the coast of the United Republic of Nations. Prior to its destruction during the early stages of the Hundred Year War, the settlement was an important center of commerce.
- Main article: Yu Dao
Yu Dao was once an Earth Kingdom city that was established as the first of the Fire Nation colonies. It was located in a wide, flat valley which was bounded by rocky terrain on all sides. The city was enclosed by a sandstone wall with one opening which served as the gateway to the city. Yu Dao's streets were lined by predominantly low rise buildings which were built in a unique style that combined Earth Kingdom and Fire Nation architecture.
Mo Ce Sea
- Main article: Mo Ce Sea
The Mo Ce Sea is a small, open body of water between the Earth Kingdom and the Fire Nation. It extends from the Hu Xin provinces of the Earth Kingdom to the Crescent Island and from the Fire Islands to the western coast of the Earth Kingdom.
- Main article: Whaletail Island
Whaletail Island is a large island situated off of the southwestern coast of the Earth Kingdom and among the Southern Air Nomad archipelago. The island gets its name from its distinctive shape, which on maps bears an uncanny resemblance to a whale's tail.
The Northern and Southern Water Tribes populate the South and North Poles respectively, and there is also a small population of waterbenders that reside at a swamp in the Earth Kingdom. Around the poles there are short mountain ridges about the inland and on the coast of the islands.
Because of its immense size, the geography of the Earth Kingdom varies tremendously by region. Much of its interior consists of arid grasslands as well as the Si Wong Desert, which largely occupy the southeast. Its northwest coast is dominated by dense pine forests, though further south, these are replaced by semitropical deciduous forests. The area near Omashu is fairly mountainous, with small pine thickets and large steppes.
The archipelago is located directly on the equator in the western hemisphere and is composed of numerous volcanoes, some of which are active. The geography of the Fire Nation is characterized by its multiple bays and fjords.
In the world, there is a considerable number of distinct geographical features in different parts of the four nations.
- Chameleon Bay — A small body of water located in the northeastern Earth Kingdom. It is on the mouth of a river that leads to the outskirts of Ba Sing Se.
- Full Moon Bay — A secluded cove in the East Lake, located just south of Ba Sing Se.
- Yue Bay — A broad inlet located in the United Republic of Nations. It connects Republic City to the Mo Ce Sea.
- Great Divide — The largest canyon in the world. It is located by a region of bare terrain in the central Earth Kingdom.
- Hiroku Canyon — A canyon located in the Earth Kingdom. Team Avatar attempted to visit this location, but an unexpected storm diverted their path.
- Air Nomad caves — An ancient cave system located on a mountainside near the Northern Air Temple once frequented by airbenders who came there to meditate and contemplate the mysteries of life and the universe.
- Beach cave — A system of underground caverns beneath an island in the eastern Fire Nation where Team Avatar stayed for a short time during their travels through the Fire Nation and hosted a secret dance party for the attendants of a local school.
- Cave of Two Lovers — A series of shifting caverns beneath a section of the Kolau Mountain Range that contains the Tomb of the Two Lovers.
- Mountain cave — An artificial cave created by the Fire Nation in the mountains of the northwestern Earth Kingdom to trap and kill any airbenders that survived the Air Nomad Genocide and fled to the Earth Kingdom.
- Shipwreck cave – A series of caverns that spread out for miles beneath a wrecked Fire Navy ship in the Southern Water Tribe near Wolf Cove. Following the end of the Hundred Year War, Gilak and his army of Southern nationalists used the caverns as a secret base of operations from which to plot the elimination of all foreigners from their tribe. However, they abandoned the hideout when Sokka and Katara learned of its existence and informed their father of its whereabouts.
- Black Cliffs — Situated on an uninhabited island of the Fire Nation.
- Fighting Cliffs — Located south of Ba Sing Se, the cliffs, one white and one red, face each other with a wide ravine between them, which ground is charred and black. Legend says that the cliffs were created in an ancient battle between earthbenders and firebenders.
- Bamboo forests — Located in the central Earth Kingdom and the indigenous home of the fire ferret.
- Earth Kingdom forest — Located in the northwestern Earth Kingdom, near Jeong Jeong's camp.
- Jet's forest — Located in western Earth Kingdom and in the vicinity of a treetop hideout. It is near the valley where the village of Gaipan was established.
- Sacred Northern forest — An ancient forest in the Northern Water Tribe inhabited by spirits.
- Sacred Southern forest — An ancient forest in the Southern Water Tribe inhabited by spirits.
- Scorched forest — Sustained heavy damage from a wildfire instigated by invading firebenders.
- Wulong Forest — A stone pillar forest that lies on the coast of the western Earth Kingdom. It is notable for the hundreds of rock columns that tower over the coastline.
- Aang Memorial Island — An island within Yue Bay boasting a large statue of Avatar Aang.
- Air Temple Island — An island located in Yue Bay, directly outside Republic City. The island features a dining hall, an airbending training area, a meditation pavilion, and quarters for White Lotus sentries.
- Bhanti Island — One of the southern islands of the Fire Islands archipelago which has been inhabited by Bhanti sages for thousands of years.
- Capital Island — The largest island in the Fire Nation, and where the Fire Nation Capital is situated.
- Chuje Islands — An uninhabited island chain of atolls, disputed between the Earth Kingdom and Southern Water Tribe.
- Crescent Island — An uninhabited island in the outer Fire Nation that once housed a temple for the Fire Sages and was a shrine dedicated to Avatar Roku.
- Dizin Island — A picturesque outer island of the Fire Nation, traditionally home to the National Historian of the Fire Nation.
- Ember Island — A small resort destination located in the outer islands of the Fire Nation archipelago. It is home to many luxurious facilities and vacation homes for the country's nobility.
- Fire Island Prison — A remote island among the northern Fire Islands of the Fire Nation. specially designed to contain waterbenders by being brutally dry during the Hundred Year War.
- Hing Wa Island — Grows ash bananas which are imported to villages across the Fire Nation. The journey to the island is two days long from Hama's village.
- Kirachu Island — A location hailed for its delectable collection of food, especially its spicy soufflés.
- Kyoshi Island — A small island off the southern coast of the Earth Kingdom that is dotted with many small villages. It is famous for being the homeland of Avatar Kyoshi as well as the Kyoshi Warriors, who succeeded her.
- Ma'inka Island — A prosperous island in the eastern Fire Nation, once home to phoenix-eel spirits.
- Natsuo Island — A previously uninhabited island rich in ore, one of the easternmost of the Fire Islands. Unclaimed by any nation until the reign of Fire Lord Sozin, when the Fire Nation laid claim to it, although Earth King Jialun wanted the island for the Earth Kingdom.
- Red Sand Island — An island to which the second division of the United Forces retreated to during the Anti-bending Revolution.
- Roku's island — An island that served as Avatar Roku's home in his later years.
- Shimsom Big Island — Located in the South Sea, the island was a major trading partner of Omashu. Strong, reliable winds from Whaletail Strait allowed merchant ships heading south from harbor towns supplying Omashu to reach Shimsom Big Island directly, circumventing the southwestern coast of the Earth Kingdom.
- Shuhon Island — The second-largest island in the Fire Nation.
- Water Tribe Sacred Island — An island located halfway between the Northern and Southern Water Tribe with spiritual and cultural significance to both tribes. For thousands of years, severe disputes between the two tribes were brought to this island, and chiefs made a voyage to the site at least once in their careers to pay respect to the land.
- Whaletail Island — Found among the isles of the Southern Air Temple archipelago.
- Yesso Island — The Fifth Nation had been unofficially logging on this island for decades by 296 BG, and offered to stop raiding the coastlines along the Xishaan Mountains in exchange for official access to this island's timber.
- Kolau Mountain Range — Range in southwestern Earth Kingdom, where Omashu is located.
- Patola Mountain Range — High ridge where the Southern Air Temple is located.
- Taihua Mountain Range — Range in the northeastern Earth Kingdom, south of Ba Sing Se.
- Xishaan Mountain Range — Range in the southeastern Earth Kingdom.
Other geographical features
- Archipelagos — The Air Nomad and Fire Nation archipelagos are both sets of islands grouped close to each other.
- Earth Kingdom plains — Open, flat expanses of land in the large continent, containing rivers, seas of grass, flat dirt stretches, and bounded forests.
- Forgetful Valley — A forest located just outside Hira'a where the Mother of Faces appears once per season.
- Foggy Swamp — A vast, mysterious wetland covering a large portion of the southwestern Earth Kingdom, which is home to the Foggy Swamp Tribe and an assortment of flora and fauna.
- Geysers — Found near the dam of a river that flows past the settlement of Gaipan.
- Laghima's Peak — A large mountain formation situated near the Northern Air Temple.
- Northern Passage — The waters between the Northern Water Tribe and northern coastline of the Earth Kingdom, which contain valuable fishing grounds that have historically come under dispute and waterways that lead into both the Earth Kingdom and Fire Nation.
- Si Wong Desert — The largest, hottest, and driest desert in the Earth Kingdom.
- Wolf Cove — A large inlet area marking the capital of the Southern Water Tribe.
- Zhulu Pass — A mass grave in the interior Earth Kingdom where Jianzhu buried 5,000 Yellow Necks alive, quashing their uprising.
- North Pole — The northernmost point of the planet's axis of rotation, situated on the Northern Water Tribe landmass.
- South Pole — The southernmost point of the planet's axis of rotation, situated on the Southern Water Tribe landmass.
Rivers, lakes, and lagoons
- East and West Lakes — Two large bodies of water located in the central Earth Kingdom to the southwest of Ba Sing Se.
- Jang Hui River — Situated on an island of the outer Fire Nation.
- Lake Laogai — A small body of water located within the Outer Wall of Ba Sing Se.
- Nan Shan River — A small river in the southern Earth Kingdom.
- Su Oku River — A small body of water located in the northwestern Earth Kingdom.
- Waterfall lagoon — Collection of springs and waterfalls in the northwestern Earth Kingdom
- Waterfall pond — Located on the northern outskirts of the Si Wong Desert. It is a pond that has a large cliff to one side where a waterfall empties into the water below.
- Northern Sea — A large, open body of water located between the northern Earth Kingdom and the Northern Water Tribe.
- Southern seas — The bodies of water located near the South Pole, such as the South Sea and southern end of the Eastern Sea.
- Eastern Sea — An extensive body of water that extends from the eastern coast of the Earth Kingdom to the northeastern shores of the South Pole.
- South Sea — A large, open body of water located between the southern Earth Kingdom, the Southern Air Nomad territories, and the Southern Water Tribe.
- Western seas — The bodies of water located along the western coast of the Earth Kingdom, such as the Mo Ce Sea.
- Hurricane Straits — One or more narrow passages of water connecting at least two larger bodies of water, where Commander Bumi claims to have once been surrounded by pirates.
- Whaletail Strait — A narrow passage of water between Whaletail Island and the southwestern corner of the Earth Kingdom that connects the western seas to the South Sea and Eastern Sea. It is known for its strong, reliable prevailing winds that help southbound merchants reach Shimsom Big Island in a straight shot.
- North Pole Tundra — A massive stretch of arctic tundra that covers most of the North Pole. Only skilled, arctic hunters tend to travel on the terrain, hunting the animals that live there, such as yaks and wolves.
- Northern tundra — The treacherous terrain within the North Pole Tundra that borders the Northern Water Tribe on its north end, known to experience some of the harshest weather in the world, including constant heavy blizzards and unstable ice sheets that can give way under the slightest pressure.
- Western tundra — The treacherous terrain within the North Pole Tundra that borders the Northern Water Tribe on its west end, where Zuko, Tonraq, and Unalaq built a secret ice prison to confine P'li.
- Boiling Rock — This Fire Nation prison is on an island in the center of a boiling lake on a volcanic island.
- Crescent Island — Volcanic island located in the Fire Nation.
- Fire Nation Capital — Some parts of the city are in a caldera of a dormant volcano.
- Mt. Makapu — Located in the vicinity of an Earth Kingdom settlement known as Makapu Village.
- Roku's island — Situated in the Fire Nation, its eruption was responsible for the death of Avatar Roku.
Each sovereignty of the four nations is characterized by a distinct climate as well as a predominant season during which benders are born at a faster rate and become stronger. These attributes illustrate the qualities of the nations.
The Air Nomad's dominant season was autumn. Although the country was geographically and topographically diverse, the climate varied little from one temple to another. Snow falls in the Southern and Northern temples during autumn and winter.
The Water Tribe's dominant season is winter, though the Northern and Southern tribes regularly experience snowfall year-round. Other forms of precipitation are rare due to the below-freezing temperatures, and thus the air is usually lacking in humidity. The average yearly temperature in the Southern Water Tribe is negative 49 degrees.
The Earth Kingdom's dominant season is spring. The average temperatures across different portions of the Earth Kingdom vary greatly because of its vast size. Some areas, such as the Foggy Swamp, are humid and rainy while other areas, such as the Si Wong Desert and Great Divide, are quite arid. Omashu and Ba Sing Se are more temperate. The coldest region of the Earth Kingdom is in and around Kyoshi Island, where the climate conditions are often subpolar.
The Fire Nation's dominant season is summer. The climate in the Fire Nation varies, though most regions have a tropical or arid subtropical climate, and many areas experience high average temperatures year-round. Even though rainfall is sporadic, the Fire Nation boasts a wide variety of exotic fauna and flora, all due to its humid climate.
After the Air Nomad Genocide resulted in the near complete extinction of the Air Nomads and the fauna that lived in the air temples with them, the population of the Air Nomads was small compared to the other nations, even the Water Tribes. The sole known survivor of the massacre was Aang, the Avatar. Only the younger of Aang's two sons, Tenzin, is an airbender and has, in turn, fathered three more airbenders. However, after the Harmonic Convergence of 171 AG, some nonbenders in the Earth Kingdom, United Republic, Fire Nation, and Water Tribes gained the ability to airbend, bringing the art back from the brink of extinction.
The population of the Water Tribes is relatively small and is the third most populous nation. Due to the Hundred Year War, the Southern Water Tribe was nearly driven to the brink of extinction through a series of raids, hence the Northern Water Tribe is the most populous division in the nation.
The Earth Kingdom is the most populous nation in the world. Ba Sing Se, its capital, is one of the largest and most advanced cities on Earth. Due to the fact that the Earth Kingdom has the largest expanse of territory, it is an ethnically diverse country, with wide variance in customs between different provinces and tribes. The Earth Kingdom has never suffered a heavy loss of life or any sort of extinction in civilization despite its constant state of warfare.
The Fire Nation is the second largest nation in the world in terms of population and area. The nation has suffered some loss of life because of the Hundred Year War, but not as much as the other nations, who have been victims of more devastating invasions and genocides. The population of the Fire Nation is mostly concentrated in urban centers, though smaller settlements, villages, and towns dot the islands as well.
- Each nation in the World of Avatar bears similarities to locations in our own world:
- The Fire Nation geography is based on Iceland while its cultures are analogous to ancient China and Japan, especially the Qin and Han dynasties.
- The Earth Kingdom is expansive, agrarian, and diverse, much like China, with architecture and clothing comparable to that of later Chinese dynasties, notably the Ming and Qing dynasties. The sandbenders share more similarities with Uyghurs and outer Mongolians, while the Kyoshi Warriors adopt customs similar to the Japanese.
- Air Nomad clothes and customs are similar to Tibetans and Central Asians.
- The Water Tribes are similar to the Inuits and Kipchak tribes, though the canal system in the Northern Water Tribe capital, Agna Qel'a, was inspired by the canals found in Italy.
- Although there are four air temples, there are only three Air Nomad archipelagos, as the Northern Air Temple is located on the northern tip of the Earth Kingdom mainland.
- Despite seasons/eclipses happening world-over, the World of Avatar is round.