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This article is about the nation in the series. For the location in the film, see Fire Nation.

The Fire Nation is one of the world's four nations and five sovereign states. It is an absolute monarchy led by the Fire Lord and home to most firebenders. Geographically, the nation is located along the planet's equator in the western hemisphere and is composed of several islands, named the Fire Islands.[3] Its capital is simply known as the Fire Nation Capital. The people of the Fire Nation are referred to as "Fire Nationals".[4]

The Fire Nation is the second-largest nation in terms of area, following the Earth Kingdom, while its economy is the most powerful in the world; its strong industrial sector and extensive technological developments not only enabled the Fire Nation to create an extremely powerful military, but also initiated worldwide modernization and globalization. Before the foundation of the United Republic and the following global technological revolution, it was also the strongest and most advanced country in the world.

Historically, the Fire Nation experienced a substantial amount of internal strife. The country was united under the first Fire Lord after a long period of violent warlord rule, ushering into a period of religious government headed by the Fire Sages. However, the warlord period continued to influence the Fire Nation's trajectory, as the warlords' descendants became the nation's noble clans and maintained private armies as well as autonomous fiefs. Eventually, the Fire Lords took power away from the Fire Sages, installing themselves as secular monarchs. Power struggles within the royal family and among the noble clans repeatedly plunged the Fire Nation into civil war, yet the country's expansionist and progressive outlook helped to transform it into a economic and military powerhouse despite repeated crises. Periodically, the Fire Nation became strong enough to threaten the other nations. Eventually, the Fire Lords began to gradually disempower the noble clans, resulting in them become true autocrats, but also powerful enough to implement new policies to the benefit of all within their nation.

The Fire Nation's increasing industrialization also greatly strengthened the country, and they were the leading power in the beginning of the world's technological renaissance. However, their confidence in their own greatness and competition for resources with the other nations led to a rise in xenophobic sentiment, a decline in spirituality, and the beginning of imperialist ambitions. This development ultimately contributed to the imperialistic Hundred Year War with the other three nations from 0 to 100 AG, as the empowered Fire Lords sought to use their country's power for global conquest. To further this goal, the country set up many colonies in occupied territories. The Fire Nation also committed many war crimes during this conflict, most infamously the genocide against the Air Nomads. Despite coming close to total victory, the war ultimately ended with a peace which steered the Fire Nation away from its imperialistic policy. Under a reformed government, the Fire Nation helped to rebuild the other nations and transformed its older colonies into the United Republic.[5][6] By 174 AG, the Fire Nation still plays a major role in world affairs,[7] chiefly following a policy of non-interventionism and trying to right the wrongs of its past.[8]



See also: Era of Raava
Hunting expedition

A hunting expedition preparing to depart into the Spirit Wilds.

In the era of Raava, predecessors of the Fire Nation received the element of fire from lion turtles that granted the power through energybending. They could request the ability whenever they ventured into the Spirit Wilds, to aid in the gathering of food and resources while defending themselves from hostile spirits. These people eventually congregated to form the Fire Nation after the lion turtles renounced their roles as protectors of mankind. At this point, the ancestors of the first Fire Nationals left the lion turtle cities in favor of establishing settlements in the western hemisphere along the equator.

Nevertheless, several aspects of life and observances practiced by the predecessors of the first Fire Nationals became part of the nation's culture, such as in the use of hybrid pigs as a primary means of sustenance. More importantly, the longstanding desire to conquer and expand into the unknown, such as a failed attempt by several villagers to set up a settlement in the Spirit Wilds, and the development of a warrior culture which depended on central leadership emerged among the predecessors of the Fire Nation. These characteristics continued to remain prevalent as seen during the Fire Nation's imperialistic endeavors in the antebellum period that directly preceded the outbreak of the Hundred Year War.[9]

Warlord era of the Fire Islands[]

Main article: Unification wars of the Fire Islands
See also: Sun Warriors, Kemurikage, and Fire Sages
Fire Islands warlords fighting

Warlords fought for territory in the disaggregated archipelago prior to the unification of the Fire Islands by the first Fire Lord.

After Avatar Wan closed the spirit portals, the humans began to wage war among themselves,[9] eventually spreading out across an archipelago in the western hemisphere which became known as the "Fire Islands".[10] One group that inhabited the archipelago was the Sun Warriors civilization which flourished and developed the original firebending techniques from dragons, and left a great cultural and architectural influence on the later Fire Nation.[11][12] The other disaggregated states of the Fire Islands were controlled by warlords, who regularly engaged in conflict for territory. Among these warlords was Toz, who was renowned for mandating annual tributes from all of the villages under his control.[10] Toz's regime eventually became the most powerful one in the archipelago.[13]

Toz's policies were harsh and brutal, even once involving the abduction of children from a village that refused to provide him with offerings. This resulted in the deaths of the mothers from the village who returned to the mortal realm as dark spirits that became known as the Kemurikage, who haunted and abducted children from Toz's encampment until his regime collapsed.[10] However, Toz's rule inspired the other warlords to also aspire to unify the Fire Islands.[13] The warlords continued to wage their wars, haunted by the Kemurikage, until one individual united the archipelago into a single political unit. He became the first Fire Lord,[10] the leader of the Fire Sages, a order descended from the Bhanti.[14] The first Fire Lord allowed some warlords to maintain autonomy, however, and their families eventually transformed into the Fire Nation's noble clans.[15] At some point, one Fire Lord split from the Fire Sages, assuming political power for himself, changing the Fire Nation's religious rule into an autocratic empire ruled by a royal family.[16]

Sun Warriors' ancient city

The Sun Warriors' ancient civilization greatly influenced the later Fire Nation.

The history of the Fire Nation from inception was documented extensively by the Fire Sages, who commissioned an ever-growing mural in the corridors of the Dragonbone Catacombs, which also served as the burial sites for all of the deceased Fire Lords. Along with the murals, numerous scrolls detailing their recorded history, personal accounts, and myths of the Fire Nation were also placed along the corridors, pertaining specifically to certain subjects in the nation's past, such as the unification of the Fire Islands by the first Fire Lord and the origin of the Kemurikage.[10]

Prosperity and progress amid strife[]

See also: Fire Nation crisis under Fire Lord Yosor, Szeto, and Platinum Affair

Following its unification, the Fire Nation became one of the most powerful and advanced countries in the world.[17] The country's citizens developed to be resourceful and resilient, a trait that was later speculated by Iroh to be a result of living on islands dominated by active volcanoes.[18] The Fire Nation's politics remained very complex and full of conflict. Even though the Fire Lords held great power and controlled a standing military, many islands retained distinct identities and remained somewhat autonomous. They fiercely guarded their resources and were often unwilling to share with other parts of the Fire Nation, let alone the central government. The noble clans also retained private armies as result of them descending from the old warlords. Bloody feuds between clans were a common occurrence in the Fire Nation, binding energy and resources.[15][19] The Fire Nation's government was also marked by strife and conspiracies, as the members of the royal family feuded in the quest for power.[20] Several dynasties rose and fell, and recurring civil wars over often pitiful issues plagued the country.[19] One of the solar eclipses during the Pei Zhi era was later recorded as "the darkest day in Fire Nation history".[21] Despite the repeated crises, the urbanization and cultivation of the Fire Nation steadily progressed. During the rule of the Pho Zel Dynasty, the komodo rhino was first domesticated, remaining the primary beast of burden in the Fire Nation until industrialization after the Hundred Year War.[22]

Young Szeto

Avatar Szeto worked as part of the Fire Nation government, helping to reform the country.

The Fire Nation came close to complete destruction during the rule of Fire Lord Yosor, when plagues and natural disasters destabilized the country and caused great tensions. As the common people struggled for survival, the noble clans took up arms and clashed over resources; the central government was unable to bring the chaos under control. The Fire Nation factually fractured into semi-independent regimes, and many feared that the ancient warlord era was starting anew. However, complete anarchy was averted by Avatar Szeto who stepped in and became a minister in the Fire Nation's government. Working in tandem with Yosor and other officials, he restabilized the country, brokered peace deals between the clans, helped to reform the central government to make it more effective, and improved the economy through monetary reforms as well as relief programs for farmers in times of famine. The Fire Nation consequently emerged strengthened from this period of intense crisis.[15]

During the childhood of Avatar Yangchen, the Fire Nation sought to influence the outcome of a prolonged civil war in the Earth Kingdom, conspiring with the Water Tribes to financially back the rebel General Nong over the reigning Earth King, Feishan. However, Feishan ended up winning the war, keeping the platinum ingots the other nations had sent Nong and closing Earth Kingdom ports in a diplomatic blunder known as the Platinum Affair. The Fire Nation and the Water Tribe declared similar states of isolation, but agreed to a controlled international trade in a select few shang cities.[23] The Fire Nation island city of Jonduri became one of these cities, and Zongdu Chaisee turned it into the jewel of the shang system. Fire Lord Gonryu enjoyed the revenue he received from Jonduri, though he had Chaisee spied on, as he did not desire to see any zongdu linger past their term.[24]

Yangchen travelled to the Fire Nation as a young woman, where she made a new pact between the Saowon clan and the phoenix-eel spirits that lived in the caverns under Ma'inka Island. After they violated the terms of the agreement to stay away from the cenotes, the children of Ma'inka were cursed to never wake from their sleep. This distracted Yangchen from her investigations in the shang cities, but she managed to negotiate with the phoenix-eels again, releasing the children from their curse if the Saowon would disgrace themselves for almost fifty years, but allowing them to rise to prominence again one day.[25][26] Yangchen came to be greatly respected in the Fire Nation, as she was in all nations. However, the humans of Ma'inka disrespected the terms of the second agreement too, and the spirits turned dark.[27] Avatar Kuruk was forced to hunt and destroy the dark spirits years later.[28]

Despite the Fire Nation's involvement in many wars,[29] it experienced relative peace since the 4th century BG.[nb 1] Despite this era of peace, the Fire Nation's military continued to develop numerous contingency plans for all kinds of conflicts, ranging from a civil war to invasions of the Earth Kingdom and the Water Tribes.[32] The powerful noble clans also continued their feuds, and some of them even hoped to take over the central government itself.[19]

The Camellia-Peony War[]

Main article: Camellia-Peony War
See also: Zoryu and Chaejin

In the time of Avatar Kuruk and the years after his death in 312 BG, the Fire Nation was stable and relatively prosperous under the rule of Fire Lord Chaeryu. The nation experienced bountiful harvests and catches of fish, and the economy thrived.[33] Regardless, Chaeryu was responsible for growing tensions in the country, as he fathered two sons with dfferent women: his illegitimate firstborn, Chaejin, by Lady Huazo of the Saowon clan, and his official heir, Zoryu, by Lady Sulan of the Keohso clan. Supported by his leading ministers, Chaeryu factually ousted both Chaejin as well as Huazo from the royal family to allow Zoryu to become the next Fire Lord.[33][13] In 304 BG, the Fire Nation's leadership struck a secret deal with the influential Earth Sage Jianzhu. According to this agreement, the latter did not execute Xu Ping An, leader of the Yellow Neck Uprising, and allowed the Fire Nation to study the rebel due to his almost extinct ability to generate lightning.[34]

Fire Lord Chaeryu eventually passed away, and his son Zoryu came to the throne. Contrary to the court's expectations, however, Huazo had proven to be a highly capable politician and administrator who gradually strengthened the Saowon clan, while Chaejin won the Fire Sages' support. Zoryu's rule was thus unstable, as Huazo and Chaejin used their resources to delegitimize him.[33][13] The developing succession conflict later became known as the "Camellia-Peony War".[19] In addition to the political unrest, the good harvests came to an end, and the fisheries declined under Zoryu's early rule. Many territories of the Fire Islands, with the capital and Huazo's lands being notable exceptions, fell into crisis and poverty.[33] Although weakened, Zoryu's regime remained in power due to the steadfast support by the Keohso clan[33][35] and aid by Jianzhu.[33][36]

Despite the internal crisis, the Fire Nation continued to involve itself in international affairs. After the Fifth Nation pirate fleet was defeated in 296 BG, the Earth Kingdom allowed the Fire Navy to patrol the Eastern Sea to restore order in the area and rescue people who had been kidnapped by the pirates.[37][38] After Kyoshi was revealed as the true Avatar, a Fire Nation envoy visited Yokoya and observed her bend each of the four elements. After recording Kyoshi's success, the minister returned to the Fire Nation the following morning to report the new state of affairs.[3]

In 295 BG, Fire Lord Zoryu invited Avatar Kyoshi to the Fire Nation to celebrate the Festival of Szeto, hoping to settle some of the unrest in the court. Instead, the Avatar's diplomatic inexperience resulted in damage to Zoryu's authority, while a surprise raid by Yun at the palace led to the death of the loyal Chancellor Dairin and a weakening of the central government.[33][39] Many nobles were outraged about the attack, some even wishing for war with the Earth Kingdom.[40] Kyoshi attempted to solve the crisis and apprehend Yun, while tensions between the Saowon and Keohso began to escalate into open violence at North Chung-Ling.[41] Meanwhile, Zoryu hatched a plot to disempower his opponents by blaming the Saowon for Yun's actions, and successfully purged them. Although he intended to just kill the entire clan, including Chaejin and Huazo, he was forced by Kyoshi to spare them.[36][42] Regardless, Zoryu came to the conclusion that the Camellia-Peony War had showcased that the noble clans had too much power. He consequently initiated a generational project in which the next Fire Lords would gradually destroy the clans' influence until the royal family would rule the Fire Nation autocratically.[19]

Those who belonged to noble clans started to see the influence of their families slipping away, either having to adapt or fight against the coming changes. Some clan leaders chose to become sycophants in the presence of the Fire Lord in order to maintain what little power they had, while others preferred to let their clans' power fade over degrading themselves by groveling before the throne.[43] Over the next two centuries, the Fire Lords amassed more and more power until becoming virtually unchallenged autocrats.[44][45]

Growing might of the Fire Lords and industrial revolution[]

See also: Sozin, Roku, and Fire Nation colonies

By Avatar Kyoshi's last years, the world had experienced an extraordinarily long time of peace. This led to an unprecedented period of collaboration fostered by business and academia to solve the era's most pressing concerns. Technological institutes sprang up around the world, and scholars, inventors, and educators directly forged ties with one another in the name of progress.[46] The Fire Nation embraced these changes wholeheartedly, and eventually became the most technologically advanced country in the world, triggering an industrial revolution.[47] The Fire Nation became very prosperous, excelling in trade and commerce, while also maintaining a powerful military.[18] Avatar Roku and Crown Prince Sozin were born into this time of progress. As the Avatar, Roku became a force for balance and peace in the world, while Sozin believed the prosperity of the Fire Nation should be shared with the rest of the world, dreaming of a global empire under his rule. These ambitions led the Fire Lord to initiate a number of reforms that militarized the country.[48]

Fire Lord Zoryu's generational project to empower the throne and crush the power of the clans was completed during this time. The last real conflict between the clans and the throne occured shortly after Sozin's coronation, with General Oraso Eiko commanding a decisive victory over the warring families. This allowed Sozin to make great strides toward progress, uplifting the poorest in his nation.[45] However, this also allowed the Fire Lord to act with impunity, no longer checked by internal powerbrokers.[44]

Sozin's army

Sozin greatly expanded the Fire Nation military, preparing for a global war of conquest.

Sozin greatly expanded the country's already powerful army and navy by embracing the age of technological advancement,[49] and jump-started the development of a new coal-powered fleet, largely designed by the Fire Nation engineer Nyn Chei, who originally planned a swift trade ship with the Water Tribe boatwright Massak, rather than a defensive patrol ship.[50] The creation of the great fleet created hundreds of jobs for the poorest members of society. Materials for the ships was scarce, leading the Fire Nation to come into numerous conflicts with the Earth Kingdom over resources, which were quietly used by the Fire Lord to stoke anti-Earth Kingdom sentiment.[51] The Fire Lord also commissioned prototypes of new overland war machines, and some such as Minister Khuchtei theorized that the unbreakable qualities of meteorite metal could be used to create tank-like machines.[52] Sozin encouraged his people to look to the other nations in order to further Fire Nation knowledge, but wished to preserve Fire Nation culture within his borders. Talented individuals such as the legendary archer Uzuku Yuyan felt pressured into sharing their skills with the rest of their homeland.[45] The Fire Nation was the host country of the Four Nations Summit & Technological Symposium, but Minister Khuchtei was furious after crates of meteorite metal were stolen from the storehouse.[53]

Meanwhile, much of the nobility had embraced the teachings and philosophy of the Air Nomads, who were more involved with the other nations during this period, wishing to do all they could to help others. The nobles funded the construction of the Fire & Air Center of Learning to teach Air Nomad ways in the Fire Nation, and the idea was supported by all four air temples. However, it was opposed by the renegade Air Nomad order known as the Guiding Wind, who wished to cut ties between the Air Nomads and the elites of the other nations, and they protested by sabotaging construction. In response, the Fire Lord seized the site from the nobility, and entrenched his military guard to protect the local population, refusing to leave until the Guiding Wind left, though the order had no intention of giving up.[46][54]


Sozin's power was unsuccessfully challenged by his sister Zeisan who had embraced revolutionary ideas.

These issues were compounded by Princess Zeisan proposing a political marriage to Khandro, the leader of the Guiding Wind. Zeisan saw the corruption growing in her family, and sought to destabilize her brother's reign with dynasty-toppling ambitions. She announced she was renouncing her wealth and titles to live a life of austerity, and Sozin almost could not control his rage. He saw the Guiding Wind as a direct threat to him due to their opposition to the concept of an aristocracy. Sozin attempted to counteract his sister's influence by spreading nationalistic propaganda campaigns targeting the poorest members of society. There were also reports throughout the Fire Nation of the Guiding Wind committing violent attacks against people, even though this violated their pacifistic principles. Khandro began to suspect that the Fire Lord or his supporters had a hand in fabricating this.[55][51][56]

While Sozin had eroded some of his political support from the nobility by his actions with the Fire & Air Center of Learning, he attempted to win back popularity by announcing the beginnings of the Dragon Hunts, also wanting to appear more fearsome than his father. Only a few dragons were killed at first, but the nobility embraced the sport voraciously. Whoever slew a dragon gained the honorary title of "Dragon" from the crown, bringing them prestige and a victory over their competitors, and it was also believed that such an act would increase one's firebending abilities a thousand-fold. The hunts led to ethical debates between these nobles and spiritual leaders, such as the Fire Sages, who were worried about killing the sacred animals. The imbalance caused by killing ancient creatures led to spirits being drawn to areas where dragons were killed, and strange occurances in these places, but Sozin formed an elite taskforce to deal with them and keep them under wraps from the general population. While an envoy from the Water Tribes sensed the spiritual disturbance and visited the death sites in the Fire Nation, Sozin reacted by spinning a propaganda campaign to blame any spiritual disturbances on the presence of the people of the Water Tribe.[46][45] The Sun Warrior civilization would go into complete isolation during this period, with the Fire Nation and the rest of the world believing them to be extinct.[57]

Sozin began his imperialist ambitions by laying claim to uninhabited islands, which nonetheless contributed to international tensions. Natsuo Island, one of the easternmost of the Fire Islands, was claimed by the crown for the first time after a large cache ore was discovered there. The calculating Earth King, Jialun, intended to goad Sozin into conflict over the island by sending his vessels on training exercises near the island.[58] The Fire Nation also laid claim to an island considered sacred by the Water Tribe as the halfway point between the North and the South, which held deep spiritual and cultural significance for their people. Chief Skiri of the North was furious, and wanted to send a majority of his fleet to retake the island, but needed the consensus of the Southern chieftains to do so. These chieftains could not come to a consensus on what to do, as many were unwilling to risk all-out war with the Fire Nation.[59]

While attempting to master the Avatar State, an impatient Avatar Roku triggered it by using the winter solstice sun, destroying the upper half of the temple on Crescent Island and activating the nearby volcano. This caused seismic instability in the surrounding islands, and people were working on rebuilding, aided by the Avatar himself. Desperate to rebuild some stability in their lives, the people living there began to buy into Sozin's anti-Earth Kingdom propaganda, blaming the neighboring nation's lack of support and their greedy claim to Natsuo Island rather than looking into any problems with their own government.[45]

Fire Nation colony

The first Fire Nation colonies, established before the war, formed the basis of the Fire Nation's later continental empire.

Both spirituality and respect for life started to rapidly decline as a result of his policies, leading to the near-extinction of the dragons with the continued hunts, and the brutalization of the Agni Kai.[11][60] Eventually, several colonies were established in the weakened Earth Kingdom, which in turn quickly became local industrial centers.[6] Sozin's expansionism was finally stopped by Roku,[61] though the Avatar allowed the Fire Nation colonists to stay in the Earth Kingdom.[6] After Roku's death in 12 BG, Sozin resumed his politics.[61]

Imperialism and the War[]

Main article: Hundred Year War
See also: Sozin, Azulon, and Ozai
Sozin and his army

Sozin began the Hundred Year War, while transforming the Fire Nation into a militarist autocracy.

With the coming of Sozin's Comet that greatly enhanced firebending, Sozin launched his attack on the air temples in hopes of killing the next Avatar, Aang. Even though the Air Nomads were completely annihilated, the Avatar could not be found and disappeared. The Fire Nation moved on to the Earth Kingdom, conquering much of its northwestern territories.[48][61][62] At this point in time, Sozin sealed the historical corridors of the Dragonbone Catacombs, as to give the appearance that the nation's history began with his reign. Given that the entire wing of Wan Shi Tong's Library dedicated to the Fire Nation was also unavailable, the restriction of the catacombs meant that very little information regarding the nation's past was accessible apart from information released by the state. The government also issued educational reforms to ensure that young citizens developed a strong sense of patriotism and were properly indoctrinated to the nation's political agendas. For instance, historical textbooks were heavily censored or modified to justify the Fire Nation's war efforts and courses that provided opportunity for personal expression were removed from the curriculum as they were potential threats to the Fire Lord's unquestioned authority.[63]

Fire Fountain City

Many Fire Nation cities grew greatly during the war due to modernization and industrialization.

After Sozin's death, his son Azulon took the throne and continued his father's policies. The Fire Nation built a global empire, subjugating most of the Earth Kingdom and the former Air Nomad territories.[64] The resources of conquered lands were used by the Fire Nation for further industrialization and extensive technological developments, such as railways, steamships, and airships,[65][66] making the Fire Nation the most advanced nation of the world. At the same time, an ethnocentric ideology prevailed among the military and nobility.[67] In line with these policies, the ancient Fire Sages order was placed under government supervision, subverting it into little more than an ageing remnant of a time when spirituality was placed before military might.[60][68] Some sages that remained loyal to the Avatar, such as Shyu's father, were executed as traitors.[69]

The process of expansion and militarization continued and the mass buildup of industry greatly increased toward the end of Azulon's reign. Even though many cities flourished as a result, the growing environmental pollution led to the rural population's impoverishment in some places.[70][71] His successor, Fire Lord Ozai, continued these politics. His reign saw significant technological advancements, the fall of the Earth Kingdom, and the reemergence of Avatar Aang. The Avatar's intervention eventually led to the Fire Nation's defeat and Ozai's deposition in favor of his son, Zuko, marking the end of the Hundred Year War.[5]

Cooperation and harmony[]

Main article: Resistance against Fire Lord Zuko
See also: Zuko, Harmony Restoration Movement, and Izumi

After Ozai's imprisonment, Fire Lord Zuko began the long process of reconstruction, and started to pay war reparations to the Earth Kingdom.[72] The nation and its people began to work to redefine themselves away from the terrible crimes of their past, without losing their traditions, heritage, and thirst for innovation.[73] Part of the world still resented the Fire Nation because of the grievous harm its government and military inflicted, and people did not know how to feel about its civilians, as many of them had supported Ozai's regime or allied with it in fear of punishment. People of the Fire Nation started to learn what it meant to be part of the world and not just a part of the Fire Nation. To that end, many citizens worked where they could to repair some damage inflicted by the war. As a result of Zuko's reforms, scholars strove to recover lost history and eliminated deceitful propaganda long taught in school texts; Fire Nation inventors contacted Earth Kingdom colleagues to collaborate for the first time in over a century; and the Fire Nation started to craft policy to ensure nothing like the Hundred Year War happened again.[74]

Kei Lo helps Zuko

Fire Lord Zuko's reforms sparked resistance by Fire Nation nationalists, including violent uprisings.

Under Zuko's rule, the Fire Nation resumed cooperation with the other nations to ensure world peace and prosperity.[5] The traditionalist Shyu was appointed new Great Sage, and under his supervision, the Fire Sages relinquished their loyalty to the Fire Nation government and returned to their spiritual and theological roots.[10] These new policies, especially the demilitarization and decolonization, met the opposition of Fire Nation colonists and imperialists that began to escalate into violence by 101 AG.[6] To solve the crisis caused by the decolonization, Fire Lord Zuko, together with Avatar Aang and Earth King Kuei, transformed the oldest Fire Nation colonies into the United Republic of Nations, ending the Fire Nation's imperialist era while at the same time allowing Fire Nation colonists to remain in their new homelands.[75][76][77]

On the other side, imperialist agitation culminated in the insurgency of the New Ozai Society, a militant reactionary organization that sought to reinstate Ozai as Fire Lord,[78][79] and Zuko also had to deal with a secret society led by Azula, who aimed not at overthrowing him but to influence his government by devious means.[80] Another known issue was that some government officials did not openly criticize Zuko, but instead held their tongues while secretly plotting to get rid of him, working against their colleagues appointed after the end of the war, and seeking to stir hate, wishing to thwart plans toward progress. Additionally, there was controversy over attempts to bring war criminals to justice, as investigators had to investigate many crimes that had taken place all over the world, often with no recorded evidence save for numerous first-person accounts.[81] In the end, all coup attempts failed, and Zuko remained Fire Lord for more than sixty years.[82]

Aang Memorial Island

The Fire Nation commissioned the massive statue of Aang Memorial Island as a symbol of peace and goodwill after the Hundred Year War.

Zuko used his nation's resources to help rebuild the Southern Water Tribe,[83] resulting in long-lasting good relations between the latter and the Fire Nation.[84] The Fire Nation also made reparations to the Air Acolytes of the new Air Nation, and officials did their best to return any relics and documents that the Fire Nation had stolen from the Air Nomads.[74][8] Furthermore, the massive statue of Aang Memorial Island in Republic City was commissioned under Fire Lord Zuko's rule as a symbol of peace and goodwill.[85][86] Around the early-mid 160s, the Fire Nation committed to charitable efforts across the globe by funding a Relief Fleet, which began to help people from any nation in need of aid from natural disasters.[87] Zuko relinquished the throne to his daughter, Izumi, in 167 AG,[82][88] under whom the Fire Nation aided the United Republic against the Earth Empire. Under Izumi's reign, the Fire Nation has maintained a strict non-aggressive policy when it comes to foreign affairs, rejecting its imperialist past and would only commit to war if left with no other alternative.[29]

The Fire Nation government currently looks inward to determine how they should be structured. Fire Lord Izumi is concerned about what supports and serves the nation in the eras to come, and she and her officials plan to invite the other nations to establish embassies within the capital of Hari Bulkan to continue fostering peaceful and cooperative relations. Both General Iroh and Izumi still see that the Fire Nation continues to make reparations for the damage done during the war. To this end, the government decided to remove the last of the Fire Nation monuments erected to honor those who perpetuated war crimes during the Hundred Year War.[87] Additionally, Fire Nation and Southern Water Tribe scholars work on a traveling showcase of tribal history to celebrate it throughout the world; and Fire Nation officials have also done their best to return Air Nomad relics to the Air Acolytes and the burgeoning Air Nation.[8] In the wake of Harmonic Convergence, a number of Fire Nation citizens also received airbending, with some choosing to neglect or ignore their newfound powers, while others elected to join the new Air Nation to learn how to control their abilities.[88]

As Fire Lord, Izumi continues her father's practice of sending workers to assist in overseas construction projects and relief efforts as a natural outgrowth from their reparations work, and became famous for her attempts to reform the Fire Nation's government. Sometimes, she sends agents and adventurers with specialized experience and knowledge on behalf of the Fire Nation according to the needs of the other nations.[8]


Being the second-largest nation, there is some degree of physical diversity among members of the Fire Nation. Its citizens tend to have black or brown hair, often styled in a top-knot or ponytail. Most Fire Nation natives, especially firebenders, have golden, amber, bronze, and brown eyes, though gray ones are also common. The people often have light skin tones, though many poorer citizens are sun-tanned. A minority of Fire Nation natives have dark skin.[89][80]

Traditional colors worn throughout the nation range from vibrant reds and yellows to more muted browns and black. Members of the army wear red, black, and brown uniforms.[89]

National emblem[]

Fire Nation emblem

The national emblem of the Fire Nation is a stylized, teardrop-shaped flame forked into a trident of three tongues that taper upward to a point. The insignia is primarily displayed on its flag, uniforms, on the pennants of Fire Navy warships, the sides of their various vehicles of war, and as marking of Fire Nation territory. The Fire Nation flag is a triangle-shaped banner with the stylized flame insignia at its center. Six thin stripes extend from the slanted edge.[90]


Main article: Fire Islands
Fire Nation map

Map of the Fire Islands excluding several small islands.

The Fire Nation is located on an archipelago of tropical volcanic islands called the Fire Islands,[3] many of which are still active. The two bigger and main islands are Capital Island and Shuhon Island.[35] Because of a warm and humid climate, the Fire Nation is home to a variety of native flora and fauna, though the main islands largely consist of rough, grassy plains bearing little wildlife.[91]

The population of the Fire Nation is mostly concentrated in urban centers, though smaller settlements, villages, and towns dot the landscape as well. The capital city is on the largest island, situated inside the crater of a large volcano.[91] There are also many industrial establishments where weapons, tanks, and warships are built to support the war effort.

Natural resources[]

Main article: Fire Islands
Fire Nation labor camp

The Fire Nation harnessed its home islands' volcanic energy and other natural resources to power its industry.

The Fire Nation possesses very fertile volcanic soil which dominates the Fire Islands, boosting local agriculture. In addition, the Fire Islands are rich in coal, iron, other metals,[47] and rich deposits of natural gas. The islands' volcanoes provide the Fire Nationals with an unlimited source of power.[35][92] However, the Fire Nation's need of resources to fuel its economy outgrew the Fire Islands' capacities in the time before the Hundred Year War, ultimately contributing to the country's imperialism.[47]


Main article: Politics in the World of Avatar

Government system: Absolute monarchy (formerly ecclesiocracy)

Head of state: Fire Lord (formerly Council of Fire Sages)

Religious authority: Fire Sages

War Room Palace

The Fire Lord's throne room.

The Fire Nation possesses a strong central government which is centered on the Fire Lords. The latter have far-reaching powers, and during some periods Fire Lords even ruled as de facto autocrats with total control. In general, however, Fire Lords relied on powerful and influential second-in-commands like the Grand Advisors and Chancellors,[15][80] a cabinet, and various ministries.[15][93] In addition, high-ranking military officers often had an important role in the central government.[94] The consorts of the Fire Lords also hold a very important position.[33][13] The Fire Nation generally emphasises martial prowess which had made it customary for royalty and the aristocracy to demonstrate their strength and capability by engaging in duels. These fights were often held for military or political purposes, such as determining who was most suited to be a government official or regaining lost honor, as the loser would face disgrace.[95] For the most part, however, the Fire Nation government relies on a meritocratic system, and it is possible for people to advance in the ranks purely based on their skill, regardless of their background or gender.[15][35]

Past Sages

For much of the Fire Nation's history, the Fire Sages played an important political role.

After its foundation, the Fire Nation was initially led by a council of sages, with one of them known as the "Fire Lord". These sages were heavily invested in philosophy and spirituality. Eventually, one Fire Lord broke from his peers and became sole ruler of the Fire Nation, enacting a line of succession and relegating the other sages to spiritual concerns. The sages nonetheless retained some political power, and tensions occasionally flared between the two.[16] From then on, the Fire Nation has traditionally emphasized a strong central government; this belief in the importance of centralism and unity is a legacy of the traumatic warlord period.[15] However, the power of the country's central government was often limited by the nobles who tried to preserve their old domains.[15][33] Locally, clan heads effectively ruled in autonomy.[13] The noble clans also held great power within the government, as Fire Lords tried to gain their backing by placing them in important positions.[15][33] Members of one clan in particular, the Sei'naka, traditionally dominated the ministries, although the clan itself was relatively weak.[15][35]

This status quo persisted until Zoryu's reign, as he initiated reforms which ultimately destroyed the noble clans' influence. Over time, the Fire Lords amassed more and more power, and increasingly ruled through intimidation.[44] Following Sozin's ascension to the throne, the remaining power of the Fire Sages was also broken.[60] From then on, the sages were ultimately forced to submit to the Fire Lord's rule and to serve him alone as spiritual advisors.[96] The increased militarization meant that officers became an influential political class unto themselves, as many colonies were influenced by local garrisons (though civil officials such as mayors, usually of Fire Nation descent, often had formal control of the colonies).[6][97][98] Many soldiers and officers were eager to advance through the ranks, and old friends often turned against one another if they were competing with their peers for a position or assignment.[98] During the Hundred Year War, the monarchy took on an absolutist character. This was exemplified by Azula's statement that "true power, the divine right to rule, [was] something you [were] born with".[99] Advisors who pushed back against the Fire Lord's decrees ended up assassinated or exiled, while military officers reluctant to follow through on his orders were replaced on the blink of an eye. The Fire Lord had spies everywhere, and anyone who wanted to rebel in any way had to be exceedingly smart, and at least somewhat paranoid.[98] The autocratic trend culminated in Ozai's attempt to become the Phoenix King, the absolutist ruler of a global empire.[19]

Fire Lord Zuko

Fire Lord Zuko was a major political reformer.

Following the defeat of Phoenix King Ozai at the hands of Avatar Aang, Fire Lord Zuko rose to power and ended the century-long war. He dismissed the members of Ozai's cabinet and ended his policies. Zuko dedicated his reign toward rebuilding the four nations in a new era of peace[5] and has thereafter been considered a benevolent ruler. He attempted to change the Fire Nation's traditional form of government to one less dominated by fear,[44] and crafted policy to ensure that nothing like the Hundred Year War could ever happen again.[74] During this time, the loyalty of the Fire Sages reverted to the Avatar.[10] Government reforms continued into the reign of Fire Lord Izumi, and she became famous for such efforts.[87]

List of known Fire Nation government positions[]

The Fire Nation has a sophisticated and effective central government, centered around the Fire Lord. It is possible for individuals to assume at least two government positions at the same time.[15] Known government positions include:

  • Fire Lord — head of state and government, formerly also foremost spiritual authority
  • Grand Advisor — one of the most powerful positions in the government, second only to the Fire Lord;[15] it is possible that this position already existed under the first Fire Lord,[80] although it was no longer active by the 3rd century BG[15]
  • Chancellor — leading advisor and confidant to the Fire Lord by the the 3rd century BG[15]
  • War Minister
  • Minister of Education, Science, and Technology[100]
  • Minister in charge of handling Avatar relations[15]
  • Various junior ministers[15][93]
  • Head Palace Historian[15]
  • National Historian of the Fire Nation[101]


See also: Economy in the World of Avatar

The Fire Nation has long possessed one of the strongest economies of all the nations, fueled by its substantial natural resources.[47][18] For much of its history, the Fire Nation mostly relied on agriculture and fishing, while maintaining a large maritime trade network.[18][3][35] However, the Fire Nation's economy was also prone to crises, as volcanic eruptions,[3][18] as well as temporary changes in weather and fish swarm movements could quickly destroy the economies of entire islands. Many regions of the Fire Nation suffered under chronic poverty and periods of hunger by Avatar Kyoshi's early lifetime.[15][33]

This situation changed when the Fire Nation experienced an industrial revolution. By building up a massive heavy industry using coal, oil, and volcanic energy, the Fire Nation was able to become much more independent of natural phenomena. Using this stable wealth, Fire Nationals could just buy resources from elsewhere when their own islands experienced scarcity. By Taiso's time, the country's economy was growing at a substantial rate and much of the population experienced greatly improved living standards.[18][61]

In course of the Hundred Year War, the country's industry was further expanded to support the military, and its economy became dominated by shipbuilding, metalworking, and manufacturing weapons. The Fire Nation stood as the most technologically advanced belligerent in the War, using its comprehensive knowledge of combustion to develop sophisticated technologies.[47] The Fire Nation also exploited its conquered territories, using not just resources, but also the skills of Earth Kingdom natives like the mechanist.[6][102] By the late Hundred Year War, trade between the Fire Islands and the colonies were an important element in the Fire Nation's economy.[103] Privately owned companies were also instrumental in manufacturing new innovations for the war effort.[104] The country maintained a large civilian navy, with powerful merchants being able to influence the government and field large trade fleets.[105] By this time, the Fire Nation used the "Ban" as currency.[2]


See also: Education in the World of Avatar
Fire Nation school afar

A Fire Nation school.

The Fire Nation has had a formal education system as early as the lifetime of Szeto. School is hardly ever canceled, with at least one notable exception being the revelation of a new Fire Avatar.[106]

During the Hundred Year War, the education system aimed to instill loyalty in its students through political indoctrination, strict discipline, and nationalist teachings. Students in certain schools began the educational process as soon as they began firebending, or for nonbenders, as soon as they began walking. Subjects including history, music, etiquette, warfare, and firebending were taught to the students by various teachers. However, the educational system primarily worked as a "mind-molding" process, influencing students to develop a strong sense of nationality and loyalty to the Fire Lord. Teachers maintained rigid order and withheld teaching students the art of dance or any other form of self-expression. In addition, censorship and propaganda were used in history books, such as falsely claiming the Air Nomads used military force to fight the Fire Nation.[63]


Crescent Island Fire Temple

The Crescent Island Fire Temple, where Avatar Roku studied.

The dress code and symbols of the Fire Nation are modeled after fire, naturally. Like the other nations, it is based on its elemental color, in this case, red. The majority of the structures are made of stone. They also have red pagoda-style roofs favored by the country. Fire Nation symbols are often put on important or nice buildings for decoration and inside it was common for a picture of the Fire Lord to be kept in a prominent, visible place.

The Fire Nation oath is a characteristic and important cultural element, demonstrated by its teaching to children in schools with demureness and recited thoughtfully.[63] The oath was written at the beginning of the War and commissioned by Fire Lord Sozin. It is titled "The March to Civilization".[107]

Many names of Fire National utilize harsh consonants like the letter "Z", including Zuko, Ozai, Azula, Sozin, Zhao, Azulon, Kuzon, Szeto, Zoryu, etc. Though interestingly enough, Piandao did mention to Sokka that there are "a million Lees" when aiding him in choosing an alias.[108]

General opinion of the world[]

Aang and Zuko speech

Fire Lord Zuko announcing "a new era of love and peace" in the spirit of the Fire Nation's original world conception.

The Fire Nation's worldview upholds that only unity, centralism and strict order can ensure stability and prosperity. This does not include restricting freedom and creativity, as these aspects of personal expression are critical to societal development and harmony; however, children do not gain this freedom until they have been taught how to improve the Fire Nation with their actions, and the honor it brings them.[63][108] These ideas are instilled from an early age.[109]

Nevertheless, this original view was corrupted during the Hundred Year War in order to fit the Fire Lords' ambitions. The idea of a peaceful, harmonious and cooperative world order was changed into an imperialist ideology that propagated global domination and striving to achieve it. Children were taught that the Fire Nation was the greatest civilization that had ever existed, that the war was its way of sharing its greatness, along with the ideology that the Fire Lord and his family were great people who were helping the world.

Zhao's speech

Zhao making a speech, declaring the Fire Nation's superiority in the sense of the old racist ideology.

This caused a cult of personality to build up around the Fire Lord, military, and aristocracy, who were seen as messengers that could bring the beauty and glory of Fire Nation culture to other lands. According to this belief, the Fire Nation Royal Palace was the center of the world, and the further away a place was from the palace, the lower were its inhabitants in regard of social status and capabilities. This led to discrimination; Fire Nation citizens of the mainland were regarded superior to those of the colonies, while the people of other nations, as well as their bending, were deemed barbaric and inferior.[63][67] Some Fire Nationals rationalized their country's war crimes in this way, arguing that the Fire Nation was a stronger civilization and thereby naturally driven to conquer or destroy lesser peoples.[110] As result, Avatar Aang once described the Fire Nation's society as "aggressive".[44]

However, under Fire Lord Zuko's rule, the original impression of the world was restored and the Fire Nation began once again to cooperate with the other nations to ensure world peace and prosperity. The most significant result of this cooperation is the creation of the United Republic and its capital, Republic City.[111]


Zuko and Zhao Agni Kai

The Agni Kai, a traditional firebender duel for one's honor. Originally without bloodshed, it later became a fight to the death.

Fire Nation society places a great emphasis on respect and honor, especially toward the nobility and elders;[112][113] the concept of the famed Agni Kai stems from these beliefs. Should one be honored enough to be in the presence of a member of the Royal Family, that person needs to prostrate themselves in respect or risk being challenged to an Agni Kai to avenge the disrespected Royal's honor. Upon coming into contact with an elder or superior, it is polite to bow down. Unlike in other parts of the world, this bow consists in placing a hand in a straight fashion with the other being fisted placed underneath it vertically.[63] This represents the superior standing with one below him, bowing. Also when receiving an order in the Fire Nation by a superior it is common to not bow, but make the hand symbol. Bowing is required upon greeting to one, when something nice has happened, after business, and leaving.[112]

The Fire Nation's concept of honor was closely connected to outward appearance. By Avatar Kyoshi's time, this resulted in the special status given to one's hair. Hairstyles could signify one's status, and noble families afforded hair an almost sacrosanct status. It was unseemingly for lower-status individuals to touch the hair of a higher-ranking person.[113] Losers of Agni Kais often shave parts of their head bald to signify humility.[114] The greatest importance is accorded to one's top-knot; changing it is a common way for Fire Nation nobles to signify one's loss of honor.[38][115] To completely cut off the top-knot is an extreme act and done in "circumstances akin to death".[114] Most notably, Zuko and Iroh cut off their top-knots upon being forced to become fugitives.[116]

Gender equality[]

See also: Gender and sexuality in the World of Avatar

The Fire Nation is well known for its long tradition of gender equality. There are hardly any occupational boundaries for women. They have full access to higher education and are equal before the law, thus, women can also become mayors, magistrates, and royal ministers,[6][100] thereby occupying the highest-ranking civilian positions in most of the nation. Likewise, a Crown Princess or female Fire Lord is not uncommon, and historical sagas about Fire Princesses just as powerful and feared are well known.[117]

By the time of Avatar Kyoshi, this gender equality extended to the Fire Nation military which included women soldiers, some of whom rose to commanding officers.[109][118] At some point before 99 AG, however, women became a small minority in the army and navy. Instead, they mostly served in the Domestic Forces, protecting the homeland.[119] Nevertheless, there were exceptions to this tradition, as women served in special front units such as the Yuyan Archers during the Hundred Year War,[120] and some women served in the colonies or on the front lines, and could rise to offices as high as general.[121] It also remained normal as well as expected from a Fire Princess to take an active part as a military commander.[112] The tradition dissuading women serving in the regular military were lifted after the Hundred Year War's end.[80]

Relationships, marriage, and family life[]

See also: Gender and sexuality in the World of Avatar
Wedding courtyard

A traditional wedding courtyard for a noble wedding.

Fire Nation society is dominated by nuclear families, usually consisting of two parents and a modest number of children.[112][80] In regards to familial roles, it is common for both parents to work, though one-income families also exist. For heterosexual couples, it is also usual that the mother is the one primarily responsible for raising the children.[10][109][112][122] Fire Nation mothers have a reputation as being fiercely strict yet also loving.[109] Nevertheless, most Fire Nation fathers take an active role in their children's upbringing.[10][122]

Most Fire Nation couples who decide to form a long-term partnership opt for marriage. Within the Fire Nation, marrying for love is more prevalent than arranged marriages, even among the nobility, as only the royal family is known to conduct marriages of political convenience.[112] Among both the nobility and the common people, a wedding is traditionally an extensive, celebrated event.[61][123] Attendees wear formal garments, with women favoring red-and-white gowns, though those worn by nobles are far more elaborate and expansive than those of the commoners. There is an even greater difference among grooms, with nobles favoring expansive red-and-black clothing while commoners wear red-and-white attire similar to their brides.[123] Large-scale decoration, including lanterns of flowers, and a banquet are typical for weddings. The wedding itself is generally presided over by either a Fire Sage or a village elder, though the Fire Lord also has the power to preside over or officiate a marriage, as was the case when Sozin served as both officiant and best man at Roku and Ta Min's wedding.[122][123] There are no known legal restrictions or societal disapproval for people who decided to terminate their marriage or separate from their partners without doing so.[79]

Though the Fire Nation had a long-standing history of tolerance toward same-sex couples, and permitted same-sex marriage,[124] such relationships were declared illegal under Fire Lord Sozin's reign.[125] In spite of these laws, an underground community of people with diverse sexual orientations and gender identity still persevered in the Fire Nation during the Hundred Year War.[126][127]

Cult of personality[]

Fire Fountain statue

A massive statue of Fire Lord Ozai, a significant symbol of the cult of personality in the Fire Nation.

The Fire Nation has a long tradition of reverence and respect for authority figures. By the 3rd century BG, however, obedience was not reserved to the Fire Lord, as clan heads and the Avatar were also highly regarded. Fire Lord Zoryu was the country's first known ruler who hoped that one day all Fire Nation citizens would become loyal only to the Fire Lords.[19] This dream was fully realized under Sozin, Azulon, and Ozai, when the Fire Nation developed an intensive and excessive cult of personality for the Fire Lords. It became common to keep pictures of the Fire Lord clearly visible in schools and public buildings, while massive statues were erected in honor of the ruler. This was accompanied by strong glorification,[112] although the monarchs were still regarded as humans – unlike the Earth King, who was said to be "an icon, a god to his people" at the time.[128] Fire Lord Zuko reined in the personality cult's most extreme aspects, going so far as to publicly admit mistakes and allow criticism of his policies.[123] In the decades following the Hundred Year War, the governments of Fire Lord Zuko and Fire Lord Izumi removed Fire Nation monuments erected to honor those who perpetuated war crimes.[87]


The defining characteristic of Fire Nation cuisine is its spicy nature,[129] and Fire Nation citizens are known to put spices into many of their delicacies and treats. As chili is an important food that may help firebenders bring out their bending talents, nurturing the special Fire Nation chili plants is a revered practice.[129] The diet of its citizens consists of noodles, meat, fish, rice, cabbage, tea and lychee nuts. The people are also known for having a taste for foods of a spicier fare, as they enjoy flaming fire flakes, fire gummies, sizzle-crisps, and fire cakes. As the Fire Nation is a hilly island country, pasture is more common than farmland, thus most Fire Nation dishes are rich in meat, while there are very few vegetarian meals. Tea is generally popular,[112] as there is even a "National Tea Appreciation Day". The tea most commonly drunk in the Fire Nation is spiced tea.


Love amongst the Dragons final scene

The final scene of Love amongst the Dragons, a famous Fire Nation play.

Fire Nation theater has a long history and is popular within the country, as both high-class citizens and peasants often attend plays in their free time. One of the most famous and popular theater plays is Love amongst the Dragons, which is performed annually at many places in the Fire Nation, ranging from high-society resort islands like Ember Island,[130] to poor backwater villages like Hira'a.[122] Becoming an actor or an actress is a respected profession, even though some acting troupes are not highly regarded due to their regularly poor performances.[122][130] Despite great artistic freedom, the theater was also utilized to serve Fire Nation propaganda during the Hundred Year War; for example, the play The Boy in the Iceberg from an Earth Kingdom writer about Avatar Aang was allowed to be performed, but only when the ending would show the Fire Nation's total victory and Aang's death.[130] Azulon's Legacy was another propagandistic play about the life of Fire Lord Azulon and the ascension of his son Ozai to the throne, portraying both rulers in a very positive light and ignoring the succession conflict which resulted in Ozai's coronation.[126]

Cultural festivals[]

Puppet show

A gathering of children enjoying a violent puppet show at the Fire Days Festival. Note the traditional masks worn by the passersby.

The traveling "Fire Days Festival", alternatively called simply the "fire festival",[131] was a Fire Nation-sponsored event that brought Fire Nation culture to its citizens forced to live away from their homeland. This event traveled to Fire Nation occupied areas of the Earth Kingdom, staying for a few weeks at a time at each location. A variety of Fire Nation people attended the festival, from soldiers on leave, to civilians living in occupied territory.[132] Its participants wore stylized hand-carved wooden masks similar to that of Kabuki theater masks, and merchants vended a wide variety of trinkets and local snacks. The festival's attractions included puppet shows, fireworks, firebending jugglers and magicians, and overall displays of individual or group bending prowess. As illustrated in its cultural festivals, the Fire Nation employed propaganda to indoctrinate a sense of nationalism and loyalty to the Fire Lord, cult of personality, in its citizens from the earliest age possible; a popular attraction cast Ozai as a hero in a children's puppet show.[133]

The Festival of Szeto is an important celebration in the Fire Nation, celebrating the life and accomplishments of the famous Fire Avatar. Lanterns are lit across the capital, Agni Kais are banned, and traditional foods such as stalknose mushrooms and melonyams are eaten.[134]

During the summer months around August, numerous "Fire Lily Festivals" spring up around the Fire Nation to celebrate the flower's blooms, famed as a symbol of fiery passion, and persist throughout their short blooming season.[135]

Another famous celebration occurs when the Fire Sages announce the identity of a new Fire Avatar; special foods such as spiral-shaped noodles are eaten and school is canceled for the day.[106]

Twin Sun Day is another important festival to the Fire Nation.[106]


Each nation of the four nations is influenced by their own distinct, dominant season. The Fire Nation's season is summer. Firebenders' powers are slightly enhanced due to the increase in temperature. Most firebending children are born during the summer.


Main article: Military of the Fire Nation

The Fire Lord's War Room.

During the Hundred Year War, the Fire Nation military was the strongest of the four nations. Using a fiery comet that greatly enhanced their powers, they succeeded in wiping out the Air Nomads early in the War, and though the Fire Nation fought on two fronts against the Water Tribes and the Earth Kingdom, they still maintained the upper hand. As the war dragged on, it became clear that the Fire Nation would eventually win if the Avatar did not intervene; the Water Tribe did not have the military might to directly challenge the Fire Nation, and the vast Earth Kingdom had lost its last great military stronghold to the Fire Nation.[99]


Main article: Fire Army
Fire Nation Army

Fire Army soldiers.

The Fire Army is comprised of both firebenders and normal foot soldiers, who normally wield spears, swords, and shields. Their cavalry ride komodo rhinos. The Fire Nation also has units of metal tanks. These tanks are heavily armored and equipped with fire ports to allow the crew to fire projectiles, ranging from fireballs produced by firebending to giant grappling hooks.[102]

The act of dressing up prisoners of war as soldiers to provide fodder was a tactic employed by the Fire Army during the Hundred Year War.[62] One of the generals suggested sacrificing a novice division of troops to provide a distraction.[94]

Yuyan Archers[]

Main article: Yuyan Archers

The Yuyan Archers are Colonel Shinu's highly skilled unit of archers and are, according to Zhao, capable of "pinning a fly to a tree from one hundred yards away without killing it". They are so skilled that they succeeded in overwhelming and capturing Aang, the Avatar, though he subsequently escaped from custody.[67]


Fire Navy

Admiral Zhao's massive fleet that attacked the Northern Water Tribe was just a small part of the entire navy.

The Fire Nation Navy, also simply referred to as the Fire Navy, consists of several fleets with coal-powered ironclad cruisers as basic units. Commanded by admirals, these fleets act rather autonomous, and even though the position of an overall commander does exist, he just controls the largest fleet and does not order other admirals.[136] In addition to its sturdy properties, the Fire Nation's use of metallurgy to remove impurities from the metal ensures that enemy earthbenders cannot damage their ships with their powers. Besides the cruisers, the navy employs many classes with different purposes, from ferrying and disembarking troops to providing bombardment with their trebuchets to creating blockades. The navy is also highly organized and stratified, with a clear hierarchy and efficient bureaucracy. Despite the enormous troop strength of the navy that employs thousands of soldiers, sailors and engineers, it is also the only known part of the military which hires mercenaries, if a sudden demand for ships will leave vessels a little short-handed on experienced crew members.[137]

During the Hundred Year War, captured earthbenders were forced into labor to work on a mid-ocean shipyard. Knowing that they could not bend the metal of the rig, many of the captured earthbenders lost their will to fight.[65]

The Fire Nation's navy is the largest and most powerful in the world, capable of dispatching over a hundred warships in larger operations, exemplified by Admiral Zhao's siege on the Northern Water Tribe with hundreds of ships.[138]

The Southern Raiders[]

Main article: Southern Raiders
Southern Raiders attacking

Southern Raiders attacking during the Southern Water Tribe raids.

The Southern Raiders are comprised of an elite force of vessels and soldiers tasked with launching the numerous raids on the Southern Water Tribe and the Southern Earth Kingdom. Their insignia is a sea raven and their uniforms are slightly different from conventional Fire Nation armor, as they are mostly black and consist of a helmet with bird-like ornaments. Their flagship is fairly advanced, with an unusually large conning tower. The goal of the Southern Raiders was to eliminate all waterbenders from the Southern Water Tribe, as well as stealing supplies for the Fire Nation and devastating the coastlines of the South Sea.[64]

Air Force[]

Fire Nation airships

Fire Nation Air Force.

The Fire Nation is the first country of the world that has established a military air force, before the Earth Kingdom and the United Republic. This air force consists of war balloons and airships. The war balloons are a type of hot air balloon designed by the mechanist, an Earth Kingdom inventor who the Fire Nation had pressed into service designing weapons and technology. They acquired it after losing the battle for the Northern Air Temple against the defected inventor.[102] Under the direction of War Minister Qin, the Fire Nation later constructed many more war balloons which were fueled by firebenders. On the Day of Black Sun, it was revealed that the Fire Nation had also constructed several massive airships.[139] These airships employ multiple propeller sets on the sides of their hulls for propulsion. Armed with bombs that they drop from the hatches on their underbellies, rudimentary cannons, and hundreds of firebending crew members who can fire at enemies from dozens of small platforms, these airships are massive aerial warships. Upon the arrival of Sozin's Comet, Phoenix King Ozai had planned to lead a massive fleet of these airships to burn the Earth Kingdom to the ground, however, most of the airships were destroyed during a battle against Team Avatar.[140]

The Drill[]

Main article: Fire Nation drill
Fire Nation drill

The drill.

This siege engine is a massive drill, designed to breach the Outer Wall of Ba Sing Se.[141] The drill was originally modeled by the mechanist and took over two years to construct. As large as a village, it houses an entire brigade of Fire Nation engineers, who are needed to make repairs and clean out pipelines. The drill is composed of two moving parts which are connected by a series of braces. It works by tearing chunks of stone from structures and grinding them down, dispensing them into water and channeling them out the rear. The drill was successful in breaching the wall, but was stopped when Aang and Katara teamed up to weaken outer layer of braces. Aang delivered a final blow to the drill from the exterior, causing the structure to fall apart from the inside out.

The drill was also accompanied by a fleet of tanks similar to the tundra tank, only equipped instead with caterpillar treads and catapults, but these were quickly demolished by Ba Sing Se's Terra Team.[141]

Notable locations[]

Notable figures[]


  • The terrain of the Fire Nation was based on Iceland.[142]
  • The overall shape of the Fire Nation resembles a flame burning sideways.
    • Additionally, the westernmost islands form a skull-like figure.
  • According to Master Piandao and others,[108] the name "Lee" is very popular in the Fire Nation. Indeed, several known characters from the Fire Nation were similarly named: Captain Li of the Fire Navy, Princess Azula's former adviser Li, the circus performer and later Kyoshi Warrior Ty Lee, and Qin Lee, a member of the Royal Procession.
  • According to General Iroh, the Fire Nation has had good relations with the Southern Water Tribe since the end of the Hundred Year War.[84]
  • Varrick considers the Fire Nation the best place to purchase red-colored objects.[143]
  • The Fire Nation was focused on the most in the post-Hundred Year War Avatar comics, though received the least attention of all nations in The Legend of Korra.
  • The Fire Nation draws significant influence and similarities to China. The Fire Nation's uniforms and architecture were styled after China[144] and its architectural design was specifically inspired by the Yellow Crane Tower in Wuhan.[145]
    • The Fire Nation bears a number of similarities to Japan as well. For one, each is a volcanic archipelago, and both the Japanese and Fire Nation people have a very high sense of honor. The sun is a major symbol in Japanese culture, especially the flag and the native name of the country itself, and firebenders obtain power from the sun. Like the Fire Nation, Japan became an extremely militaristic and industrialized country in only a few decades, and the Fire Nation launched a war against all the other nations, just as Japan launched a war against other Asian countries. Fire Lord Sozin's proclaimed ambition to "share the prosperity" of the Fire Nation through expansion and colonization is similar to the concept of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Finally, the Fire Nation invasion of the Air Nomads is reminiscent of Japan's surprise invasions of Guam, Burma, Borneo, Malaya, and the Philippines, as well as its attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • Individuals from the warlord era of the Fire Islands were based on the Ainu, an indigenous group of Japan and Russia.[146]


  1. No wars between the different nations took place after Avatar Yangchen's death in 345 BG.[30] The Earth Kingdom experienced rebellions and civil wars, though these ended under Avatar Kyoshi. There was "a great [global] era of peace" since 270 BG.[31]


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