Earth Kingdom emblem
This article is about the political position. For other similar uses, see Earth King (disambiguation).
Earth King Kuei

Kuei reigned as the 52nd Earth King.

The Earth King or Earth Queen is the ruler of the Earth Kingdom. They are traditionally based in the capital city of Ba Sing Se, where the royal palace constitutes its own district within the Upper Ring of the city, functioning as both the monarch's residence and seat of government.[1] As of 174 AG, with the coronation of Wu of the Hou-Ting Dynasty, there have been fifty-four monarchs of the Earth Kingdom. However, after Kuvira attacked Republic City, hoping to subsume it into her self-proclaimed "Earth Empire", King Wu decided to abdicate the throne and abolish the monarchy altogether, in favor of independent states with elected governments. This was akin to the political system of the United Republic of Nations, and a motion for which Wu received the support of Avatar Korra.[2]

Traditionally, the earth monarch leaves behind all personal possessions upon ascending the throne, including their given name, and is henceforth known only as "Your Majesty" or by their reign number, enhancing their status as detached and sacrosanct individuals.[3] However, this was not a universal standard, since Earth Kings Kuei and Wu preferred their given names over their title, allowing even commoners to address them by it.[4][5] The earth monarchs are also worshiped as gods by some Earth Kingdom citizens, even though their political role has historically alternated between a largely symbolic figurehead and that of an actual imperial ruler.[1][3]

The relation between the monarch and the general population has likewise varied over time: Some rulers like Earth King Kuei had a populist style of rule,[4] while others like his daughter Hou-Ting insisted on their sacrosanct status, caring only about their own power and not their subjects.[6] Such authoritarian styles of rule resulted in rebellion and anarchy at least twice in the Earth Kingdom's history.[7][8]


Early history

The Earth Kingdom was gradually unified by the rulers of the city state of Ba Sing Se, and eventually one sovereign completed the unification wars and crowned themselves the first earth monarch. From then on, the earth monarchs would govern the Earth Kingdom from Ba Sing Se, usually never leaving the vast capital from their ascension until their deaths.[9] As result, the earth monarchs often held absolute power in Ba Sing Se, using a loyal bureaucracy to carry out their will.[10]

The situation remained more complex outside the capital. The Earth Kingdom was too large to be successfully governed by a centralized government, and the earth monarchs consequently left some local rulers like the Kings of Omashu in power as long as they stayed loyal. In many regions, governors appointed by the earth monarchs likewise enjoyed great autonomy.[11] Regardless, many early earth monarchs were immensely powerful, attempted to exert as much influence on their empire as possible, and controlled their lands personally and even brutally.[8][10] They would use shirshu to cruelly execute their political enemies.[12]

An early line of earth monarchs was the Hao dynasty, and it was in this period that a particular style of siheyuan buildings was developed. Palaces built in this era often had an iron saferoom hidden in their depths, with the lord of the manor fleeing and locking himself behind the impenetrable iron doors if the palace came under attack.[13]

The 22nd Earth King's reign marked the last time the Fire Navy was allowed to fly military colors in the Eastern Sea before the defeat of the notorious pirate queen Tagaka in 296 BG.[11]

The 40th Earth King, who ruled around the 4th Century BG, was assassinated by Tieguai the Assassin.[14]

Constituational change and decline of the monarchy

Kyoshi threatens the 46th Earth King

Avatar Kyoshi threatened the 46th Earth King until he accepted a new constitution in order to quell the Peasant Uprising in Ba Sing Se.

The Earth Kingdom's political situation began to change under the rule of the 46th Earth King. He tried to change the Earth Kingdom into a centralist empire. To achieve this goal, he used violence and oppression, causing a civil war and a peasant uprising in the process.[8][15] Due to these events and the intervention of Avatar Kyoshi, the Earth Kingdom was transformed into a constitutional monarchy to prevent future monarchs from abusing their power. This caused a dramatic change in the politics of the Earth Kingdom, and over time bureaucrats and local rulers used the new constitution to gather more and more power. In the process, the monarchy became stagnant and corrupt, as kings ceded or were forced to cede more and more control over the day-to-day operations to the governments and bureaucracy that sprang up around them. They traditionally made use of sixty-seven different seals, depending on the document in question.[3]

Azula captures Kuei

Princess Azula used Kuei for leverage during the coup.

Due to Earth King Kuei's premature ascendancy to the throne at the age of four,[3] the position finally declined to that of a figurehead, allowing Grand Secretariat Long Feng, Kuei's regent and later adviser, to take control of the capital Ba Sing Se.[1] The traditional rule of the Earth Kings eventually ended when the Fire Nation Princess Azula usurped the throne in a violent coup. The rightful Earth King Kuei was forced into exile. When the Fire Nation took control over the city by Azula's order, the usurper left a Joo Dee as a puppet ruler with the title of "Supreme Bureaucratic Administrator of Ba Sing Se".[16]

After the end of the century long war, Earth King Kuei was restored on his rightful place as the leader of the Earth Kingdom. As such, he played a very important role in the execution of the Harmony Restoration Movement in order to remove the Fire Nation presence in the Earth Kingdom by transferring the Fire Nation colonials back to the Fire Nation. Kuei also reformed the Earth Kingdom government back to its original form so the monarch had full power over the government.[17]


Wu's coronation

With the unrest in the Earth Kingdom nearly entirely settled down, Wu was crowned as the fifty-fourth king of all the earth lands.

Eventually, Kuei's daughter, Hou-Ting, succeeded her father as ruler of the Earth Kingdom and allowed the Dai Li back into the capital as a force working for her. During her reign, she spent large amounts of money on personal interests, making her somewhat unpopular with her people.[6] However, Hou-Ting was killed by Zaheer in 171 AG[7] and the throne remained vacant for three years. Prince Wu, Hou-Ting's great-nephew, was the next in line to succeed her, though due to the instability in the kingdom, he was forced to flee the nation and seek refuge in Republic City.[18] He lived in the United Republic of Nations' capital for three years before being crowned the new Earth King in 174 AG. However, during his coronation, Kuvira denounced his authority and usurped power for herself, renaming the Earth Kingdom the "Earth Empire".[19]

Wu became the target of kidnappings, but he managed to stay out of harm's way and grew into his role as a leader of the people. He slowly gained the trust and faith of the people by taking the lead on the evacuation of Republic City when Kuvira attacked, helping to keep the refugees safe. After Kuvira was defeated, however, Wu made plans to step down as king and abolish the monarchy in favor of independent states with elected governments, akin to the political system of the United Republic of Nations, a motion for which he received the support of Avatar Korra.[2]

Known earth monarchs

  • Yi Ming - Years unknown
  • 22nd Earth King - His rule marked the last time the Fire Navy was allowed to fly military colors in the Eastern Sea until the restriction was lifted in 296 BG.[11]
  • 40th Earth King - Ruled c. 4th century BG, he was assassinated by Tieguai the Immortal.[14]
  • 46th Earth King - c. 270 BG
  • Kuei, 52nd Earth King - 79 - 100 AG; 100 AG - Unknown
  • Azula[nb 1] - Spring 100 AG
  • Hou-Ting - Unknown - 171 AG
  • Wu - 174 AG - Present, though moving to abolish the monarchy and split the kingdom into independent states with democratically-elected leaders.


  • The earth monarchs often wear clothing in bright shades of yellow. In Imperial China - one of the major inspirations for the Earth Kingdom - yellow was a color reserved solely for the Emperor and was often associated with the element of Earth.
  • The earth monarchs are the only leaders of one of the four nations to have never demonstrated any bending ability.
  • On the wanted posters of Team Avatar issued by Hou-Ting, the "Earth Queen" title is written in Chinese as 土國皇后, which literally means "The Empress of the Earth Kingdom".[20]
  • No Earth King had been to the outer wall of Ba Sing Se until Kuei ventured there with Team Avatar.[21]


  1. Avatar Extras for "The Crossroads of Destiny" on Nicktoons Network refers to Azula as "Earth Queen Azula", meaning that she reigned in the nation as ruler beginning from Long Feng's second incarceration and likely until she left Ba Sing Se. However, Azula was never officially crowned, and thus she can only be considered as usurper.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Hedrick, Tim (writer) & MacMullan, Lauren (director). (September 22, 2006). "City of Walls and Secrets". Avatar: The Last Airbender. Season 2. Episode 14. Nickelodeon.
  2. 2.0 2.1 DiMartino, Michael Dante (writer) & Zwyer, Melchior (director). (December 19, 2014). "The Last Stand". The Legend of Korra. Season 2. Episode 26.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 From older Avatar: The Last Airbender official site, originally on (link). No longer updated, encyclopedia now broken though archived here.
  4. 4.0 4.1 DiMartino, Michael Dante; Konietzko, Bryan; Yang, Gene Luen (writer), Sasaki of Gurihiru (penciling, inking), Kawano of Gurihiru (colorist), Heisler, Michael; Comicraft (letterer). The Promise Part Three (September 26, 2012), Dark Horse Comics.
  5. DiMartino, Michael Dante (writer) & Heck, Colin (director). (November 14, 2014). "Reunion". The Legend of Korra. Season 2. Episode 20.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Hedrick, Tim (writer) & Graham, Ian. (June 27, 2014). "The Earth Queen". The Legend of Korra. Season 2. Episode 3. Nickelodeon.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Hedrick, Tim (writer) & Zwyer, Melchior (director). (August 8, 2014). "Long Live the Queen". The Legend of Korra. Season 2. Episode 10.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Escape from the Spirit World: Avatar Kyoshi Online Comic Book.
  9. Avatar Extras for "The Earth King", on Nicktoons Network.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Yee, F. C. (author), DiMartino, Michael Dante (author). (July 16, 2019). Chapter One, "The Test". The Rise of Kyoshi. Amulet Books.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Yee, F. C. (author), DiMartino, Michael Dante (author). (July 16, 2019). Chapter Eight, "The Fracture". The Rise of Kyoshi. Amulet Books.
  12. Yee, F. C. (author), DiMartino, Michael Dante (author). (July 16, 2019). Chapter Nineteen, "The Beast". The Rise of Kyoshi. Amulet Books.
  13. Yee, F. C. (author), DiMartino, Michael Dante (author). (July 16, 2019). Chapter Twenty-Three, "Questions and Meditations". The Rise of Kyoshi. Amulet Books.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Yee, F. C. (author), DiMartino, Michael Dante (author). (July 16, 2019). Chapter Fifteen, "Escape". The Rise of Kyoshi. Amulet Books.
  15. O'Bryan, John (writer) & MacMullan, Lauren (director). (April 28, 2006). "Avatar Day". Avatar: The Last Airbender. Season 2. Episode 5. Nickelodeon.
  16. Chan, May; Ehasz, Aaron; Mattila, Katie; Wilgus, Alison (writer), Ganter, Amy Kim (artist), Dzioba, Wes (colorist), Comicraft (letterer). "Going Home Again" (September 18, 2007), Nick Mag Presents: Avatar: The Last Airbender.
  17. DiMartino, Michael Dante; Konietzko, Bryan; Yang, Gene Luen (writer), Sasaki of Gurihiru (penciling, inking), Kawano of Gurihiru (colorist), Heisler, Michael; Comicraft (letterer). The Promise Part One (January 25, 2012), Dark Horse Comics.
  18. Hamilton, Joshua (writer) & Heck, Colin (director). (October 3, 2014). "After All These Years". The Legend of Korra. Season 2. Episode 14.
  19. Hedrick, Tim (writer) & Zwyer, Melchior (director). (October 17, 2014). "The Coronation". The Legend of Korra. Season 2. Episode 16.
  20. DiMartino, Michael Dante (writer) & Graham, Ian (director). (August 1, 2014). "The Stakeout". The Legend of Korra. Season 2. Episode 9.
  21. O'Bryan, John (writer) & Spaulding, Ethan (director). (November 17, 2006). "The Earth King". Avatar: The Last Airbender. Season 2. Episode 18. Nickelodeon.

See also

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